[Indications and contraindications for epididymo-deferens vesiculography from a current viewpoint].Rofo. 1983 Jun; 138(6):736-9.ROFO
69 years after the introduction of x-ray examination of the seminal duct, the indication and contraindication are reviewed according to current interdisciplinary aspects, basing on 31 cases studied over a period of two years. The procedure followed in the roentgenological visualization of carcinoma of the prostate is generally recognized, whereas controversial opinions are held with regard to patients with occlusive azoospermia. The possibility of lesions and damage caused by some contrast media is an established fact. Differences in the lumen of the ductus epididymidis prevented complete visualization of the epididymis when using the previous, highly concentrated, sticky contrast media which were insoluble in water. These drawbacks have been eliminated by Amipaque. Today epididymograms are no longer considered necessary, although there are exceptions. Experience and a sophisticated technique are mandatory. If refertilization is envisaged, it is permissible during operation only to effect a descending x-ray for the purpose of clarifying the outflow conditions.