[Intravenous administration of lipids in parenteral nutrition of preterm and newborn infants].Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 1983; 131(4):214-7MK
Total or supplementary parenteral nutrition is a main part of therapy of sick preterm and newborn infants. It becomes necessary when oral feeding is not or not completely possible. Administration of lipids for parenteral feeding has the following advantages: 1. well-balanced nutrition concerning calories, 2. high energy density in low volume, 3. blood isotonicity, 4. infusion into peripheral veins is possible, 5. lack of essential fatty acids is avoided. Before starting parenteral nutrition, acidosis, hypoxaemia, hyperglycaemia and insufficient circulation must have been treated. The fat supply is being increased step-wise up to a dosage of 2--3 g/kg bwt/day whilst controlling the serum triglyceride concentration. The fat emulsion is continuously applied for 24 h. Contraindications to this are shock, disturbances of blood coagulation and of fat metabolism. Complications are avoided by an appropriate and standardized nutritional programme and sufficient clinical and laboratory control.