Ketone body kinetics in humans: the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes, obesity, and starvation.J Lipid Res 1984; 25(11):1184-94JL
The kinetics of acetoacetate (A) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (B) have been studied following the injection as a pulse or continued infusion of [3-14C]acetoacetate (A*) or [14C]beta-hydroxybutyrate (B*) into six newly diagnosed, untreated, ketotic diabetic patients, ten obese subjects in the postabsorptive state, and the ten obese subjects after 1-2 weeks starvation (50 cal per day). Employing a compartmental model of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate kinetics developed using CONSAM for normal subjects, the rate coefficients (Lij), rates of release of newly synthesized acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate into the blood (UA, UB), and fractional removal of each compound (FCRA and FCRB) were calculated. Ketone body release into blood (UA + UB) in diabetic subjects was threefold higher than normal (mean +/- SD, 208 +/- 118 versus 81 +/- 66 mumol min-1 m-2) and in obese subjects the rate increased on starvation from 171 +/- 70 to 569 +/- 286 mumol min-1 m-2. In each case most of the increase was in beta-hydroxybutyrate. The major change in diabetes and on starvation of the obese subjects was in the rate coefficient for removal of ketone bodies. Normally 0.168 +/- 0.109 min-1, it was 0.055 +/- 0.040 min-1 in the diabetic patients and fell from 0.066 +/- 0.040 to 0.027 +/- 0.019 min-1 in the obese subjects on starvation. In normal subjects, FCRA was similar to FCRB (0.226 +/- 0.142 versus 0.188 +/- 0.124 min-1). However, in diabetics, FCRA was 0.074 +/- 0.044 and FCRB was 0.050 +/- 0.034 min-1 and both were lower than normal. On starvation of obese subjects, FCRA fell from 0.199 +/- 0.047 to 0.089 +/- 0.035 min-1, whereas FCRB fell from 0.141 +/- 0.040 to 0.033 +/- 0.012 min-1. Therefore, the removal of beta-hydroxybutyrate was impaired more than that of acetoacetate in all patients. Our results confirm previous observations that ketosis is associated with high rates of ketogenesis and a decrease in fractional clearance. In addition, we found that in diabetes, obesity, and in obese subjects following starvation, most of the increased synthesis was in beta-hydroxybutyrate and that the clearance of beta-hydroxybutyrate decreased more than that of acetoacetate.