Increases in dietary cholesterol and fat raise levels of apoprotein E-containing lipoproteins in the plasma of man.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Jun; 56(6):1108-15.JC
Previous studies from this laboratory have determined that diets containing the usual amounts of fat to which are added 750-1500 mg/day cholesterol elevate the plasma cholesterol concentration by variable amounts, depending upon the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P/S ratio) of the diet. Diets with P/S ratios of 0.25-0.4 are accompanied by elevations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas diets with a P/S ratio of 2.5 produce no significant changes in cholesterol levels. On the low P/S ratio diets, the structure, composition, and interaction with cultured fibroblasts of LDL are not significantly changed. Plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels remain constant, but HDL2 increase relative to HDL3. In the present study, not only dietary cholesterol but also total dietary fat was altered. Six normal young men were fed a basal diet consisting of 18% protein, 51% carbohydrate, and 30% fat, containing 250 mg/day cholesterol. After 2 weeks, an experimental diet consisting of 18% protein, 42% carbohydrate, and 39% fat, containing 1760 mg/day cholesterol, was fed for 4 weeks. The P/S ratios of both diets were about 0.4. Plasma samples were taken twice during each dietary period from 12- to 14-h-fasted subjects and analyzed for their contents of lipoprotein lipids. Plasma levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol increased by 30 and 13 mg/dl, respectively; total and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride concentrations were unaltered. The plasma concentrations of apoproteins (apo) B, E. and A-I, but not A-II, were elevated. Plasma samples also were studied by zonal ultracentrifugation, gel permeation column chromatography, and Pevikon electrophoresis. Although on zonal ultracentrifugation the total concentrations of LDL were increased, the flotation properties and chemical compositions of LDL were not changed. By contrast, HDL2 and HDL3L concentrations increased, and HDL2 became enriched with cholesteryl esters. On gel permeation chromatography, with the subjects on the basal diet, plasma cholesterol eluted in two peaks, corresponding to LDL and HDL. The sizes of the peaks increased on the experimental diet. ApoE eluted in two peaks: one at the leading edge of LDL (corresponding to VLDL or IDL) and the other in the area between LDL and HDL, corresponding to HDLC. On the experimental diet, the apoE peak between LDL and HDL increased. On Pevikon electrophoresis apoE migrated between the LDL and HDL bands. This apoE peak was increased on the experimental diet. These findings suggest that increasing the concentrations of both dietary cholesterol and total fat can increase the levels of plasma LDL, HDL2, and HDLC in fasting normal subjects. Thus, the concentrations of some putatively atherogenic as well as antiatherogenic lipoproteins increased in plasma, and the apparent paradox between the epidemiological and metabolic behaviors of some lipoproteins remains. Clearly, more work is needed to resolve the roles of various lipoproteins in plasma in atherosclerosis.