Pelvic actinomycosis associated with use of intrauterine device: a new challenge for the surgeon.Am Surg. 1982 Jan; 48(1):25-7.AS
Pelvic actinomycosis associated with the use of an intrauterine device (IUD) is a recently recognized combination. The usual manifestation of the disease are those of mild pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in a woman who uses an IUD. The disease is easily recognized on Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears. Early treatment involves removal of the IUD and administration of penicillin. Rarely, the disease may be serious and may require drainage of intra-abdominal abscesses, hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy, or both. The second known death from pelvic actinomycosis associated with use of an IUD is reported.