Nutrient intake in Jerusalem--effects of origin, social class and education.Isr J Med Sci. 1982 Dec; 18(12):1198-209.IJ
The independent association of ethnic group, social class and education with nutrient intake was studied in a sample of 1,294 adults in the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic (LRC) population. By univariate analysis, intake of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) was higher (P less than or equal to 0.05) in males and females of the upper social classes (classified by the occupation of the head of the family) than in the lower classes, while the opposite trend was found for the consumption of carbohydrates and starch. In men, an association between social class and the intakes of protein and other carbohydrates (i.e., other than sucrose and starch) and the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFA) to SFA (P:S ratio) was also found. In both sexes, the mean intakes of SFA and other carbohydrates were higher and that of starch lower in subjects with a higher level of education (P less than or equal to 0.05). Education was also associated with the consumption of protein and fat in males and with that of carbohydrates and sucrose in females. Country of origin was related (P less than or equal to 0.05) to the intake of fat, SFA and other carbohydrates in both sexes, to that of protein and cholesterol in males and to that of carbohydrates, sucrose and starch in females. The P:S ratio of the diet of male subjects was also associated with origin. Using various models of analysis of variance, it was shown that origin was associated with nutrient intake (P less than or equal to 0.10), independent of the effect of social class and education for protein, fat, SFA, cholesterol, sucrose and other carbohydrates in males, and for fat, SFA, PFA and other carbohydrates in females. The P:S ratio of the male diet was also associated with origin. The level of education was independently related (P less than or equal to 0.10) to the intake of fat, SFA, starch and other carbohydrates in males and to that of sucrose in females, while social class was associated independently with carbohydrate consumption in males only. After prior adjustment for origin, education had a stronger residual effect than did social class in males, while in females the associations of social class and education with nutrient intake were almost identical.