Pediatric urolithiases: a ten-year review.Pediatrics 1980; 65(6):1068-72Ped
Sixty-one children who presented with urinary calculi between 1967 and 1977 were reviewed. The overall incidence of calculus disease in our patients was higher than reported previously from other centers in this country. Because presenting symptoms varied, a high index of suspicion was often required for diagnosis. Stones of infection were the most common type identified. Inasmuch as the revurrence rate of calculi in children was low (6.5%), careful consideration of time and cost is warrented before extensive evaluation for metabolic causes of stone formation is undertaken. Immobilization was an important factor in the etiology of stone disease. Most stones less than 5 mm in size passed without surgery.