Effects of amount and type of dietary fat on serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in man. A controlled 8-week trial.Atherosclerosis. 1980 Aug; 36(4):515-27.A
We have studied whether a low-fat diet is as effective in lowering some risk factors for atherosclerosis as a diet rich in polyunsaturated fat (PUFA). During a 2.5 week control period, 60 volunteers were given a moderate-fat diet (MOD) providing 30% of the daily energy intake (energy %) in the form of fat, one-third of which was PUFA. For the next 5 weeks subjects were divided into 4 groups and received diets providing varying amounts of total fat and of PUFA: for group LO, 20 energy % PUFA; group HIPUF, 40 energy % fat and 19 energy % PUFA; and group HISAT, 40 energy % fat and 3 energy % PUFA. The diets contained the same amounts of cholesterol, phytosterols, oligosaccharides and other nutrients, known to affect serum lipid levels. All food was prepared daily and weighed out for each individual appropriate to his energy needs. Nutrient intakes were checked by 7-day records and by chemical analysis of double portions. On diet LO, total serum cholesterol concentration increased by 0.25 mmol/l while HDL cholesterol concentration did not change significantly. The HDL cholesterol/apoprotein-A1 ratio fell, and VLDL and LDL triglyceride centrations were elevated. On the HIPUF diet, total serum cholesterol concentration was not significantly lower, but HDL cholesterol concentration increased by 0.10 mmol/l. On the HISAT diet, total serum cholesterol concentration went up by 0.38 mmol/l; 0.12 mmol/l of this was due to HDL. LDL cholesterol/serum apoprotein-B ratios were unaffected by any of the diets. It was concluded that after 5 weeks, the influence of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on the concentrations of serum lipoproteins was less favourable than that of moderate- or high-fat diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.