Hepatotoxicity of antibiotics.Acta Gastroenterol Belg 1995 May-Aug; 58(3-4):290-6AG
Several antibiotics can cause severe hepatic injury. It is the purpose of this paper to review the main antibiotics that can cause hepatic injury and discuss the presentation, pattern, and outcome of hepatic injury. In the case of the penicillins, the combination amoxycillin-clavulanate and the penicillinase-resistant penicillins oxacillin, (di-)cloxacillin, and flucloxacillin can cause (mainly cholestatic) hepatitis. Cephalosporins have little hepatotoxicity; ceftriaxone can cause drug-induced gallstones. The potential of erythromycin and several other macrolides to cause (usually cholestatic) hepatitis is well established. Tetracyclines can cause a syndrome mimicking acute fatty liver of pregnancy, but this complication has virtually disappeared. Quinolones seem to be able to cause cholestasis. Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim can cause severe hepatotoxicity, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Finally, nitrofurantoin can cause acute cholestatic and hepatocellular reactions as well as chronic hepatitis mimicking chronic auto-immune hepatitis.