Response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and Fansidar in vivo and chloroquine and amodiaquine in vitro in Uganda.East Afr Med J. 1995 Jun; 72(6):349-54.EA
The response of P. falciparum to chloroquine and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine in vivo and chloroquine and amodiaquine in vitro was investigated in parasitaemic school children from six locations. Mean parasite sensitivity to chloroquine at day 7 was 74% (range 61-97) with parasite clearance rates between 2-3 days and complete defervescence in 85% of febrile children. Sensitivity declined in the four sites followed up to day 14 to 45% (range 37-53). Parasites were significantly more sensitive to pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine at 5/6 sites (100% day 7) but 5% of subjects became parasitaemic by day 14. In vitro isolates were significantly less sensitive to chloroquine than to amodiaquine with a mean 99% effective concentration of 348 mumol/L compared to 6.44 mumol/L. Clearly the role of chloroquine as the primary therapy for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria should be reconsidered especially in the light of increasing disease severity and resurgence. Amodiaquine may be suitable alternative with pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine as second line and for more severe malaria prior to referral. The cost of alternative antimalarials and the dynamic and deteriorating pattern of resistance are powerful arguments for more objective slide diagnosis to minimise drug pressure and a regular drug sensitivity surveillance system. We believe that the latter should concentrate on measuring clinical drug efficacy in symptomatic outpatients rather than in asymptomatic children while the former needs more pragmatic and economical strategies possibly centred on seasonality and risk.