Progress toward global poliomyelitis eradication, 1985-1994.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1995; 44(14):273-5, 281MM
In 1985, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) established as a goal the elimination of poliomyelitis from the Western Hemisphere by 1990; the last confirmed case of paralytic polio caused by wild poliovirus occurred in 1991 in Peru. In 1988, the World Health Assembly established the objective of global polio eradication by the year 2000. Substantial progress toward this goal has resulted from the use of four strategies recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO): 1) maintenance of high vaccination coverage levels among children with at least three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); 2) development of sensitive systems of epidemiologic and laboratory surveillance, including use of the standard WHO case definition; 3) administration of supplementary doses of OPV to all young children (usually those aged < 5 years) during National Immunization Days (NIDs) to rapidly interrupt poliovirus transmission; and 4) "mopping-up" vaccination campaigns--localized campaigns targeted at high-risk areas where wild poliovirus transmission is most likely to persist at low levels (3). This report summarizes progress toward global polio eradication from 1985 through 1994 based on data submitted to WHO as of March 20, 1995.