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Forensic drug testing for opiates. VI. Urine testing for hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone with commercial opiate immunoassays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
J Anal Toxicol. 1995 Jan-Feb; 19(1):18-26.JA

Abstract

Opiate testing for morphine and codeine is performed routinely in forensic urine drug-testing laboratories in an effort to identify illicit opiate abusers. In addition to heroin, the 6-keto-opioids, including hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone, have high abuse liability and are self-administered by opiate abusers, but only limited information is available on detection of these compounds by current immunoassay and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) methods. In this study, single doses of hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone were administered to human subjects, and urine samples were collected before and periodically after dosing. Opiate levels were determined in a quantitative mode with four commercial immunoassays, TDx opiates (TDx), Abuscreen radioimmunoassay (ABUS), Coat-A-Count morphine in urine (CAC), and EMIT d.a.u. opiate assay (EMIT), and by GC-MS. GC-MS assay results indicated that hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone administration resulted in rapid excretion of parent drug and O-demethylated metabolites in urine. Peak concentrations occurred within 8 h after drug administration and declined below 300 ng/mL within 24-48 h. Immunoassay testing indicated that hydromorphone, hydrocodone, and oxycodone, but not oxymorphone, were detectable in urine by TDx and EMIT (300-ng/mL cutoff) for 6-24 h. ABUS detected only hydrocodone, and CAC failed to detect any of the four 6-keto-opioid analgesics. Generally, immunoassays for opiates in urine displayed substantially lower sensitivities for 6-keto-opioids compared with GC-MS. Consequently, urine samples containing low to moderate concentrations of hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone will likely go undetected when tested by conventional immunoassays.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Office of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

7536861

Citation

Smith, M L., et al. "Forensic Drug Testing for Opiates. VI. Urine Testing for Hydromorphone, Hydrocodone, Oxymorphone, and Oxycodone With Commercial Opiate Immunoassays and Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry." Journal of Analytical Toxicology, vol. 19, no. 1, 1995, pp. 18-26.
Smith ML, Hughes RO, Levine B, et al. Forensic drug testing for opiates. VI. Urine testing for hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone with commercial opiate immunoassays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Anal Toxicol. 1995;19(1):18-26.
Smith, M. L., Hughes, R. O., Levine, B., Dickerson, S., Darwin, W. D., & Cone, E. J. (1995). Forensic drug testing for opiates. VI. Urine testing for hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone with commercial opiate immunoassays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 19(1), 18-26.
Smith ML, et al. Forensic Drug Testing for Opiates. VI. Urine Testing for Hydromorphone, Hydrocodone, Oxymorphone, and Oxycodone With Commercial Opiate Immunoassays and Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry. J Anal Toxicol. 1995 Jan-Feb;19(1):18-26. PubMed PMID: 7536861.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Forensic drug testing for opiates. VI. Urine testing for hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone with commercial opiate immunoassays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. AU - Smith,M L, AU - Hughes,R O, AU - Levine,B, AU - Dickerson,S, AU - Darwin,W D, AU - Cone,E J, PY - 1995/1/1/pubmed PY - 1995/1/1/medline PY - 1995/1/1/entrez SP - 18 EP - 26 JF - Journal of analytical toxicology JO - J Anal Toxicol VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - Opiate testing for morphine and codeine is performed routinely in forensic urine drug-testing laboratories in an effort to identify illicit opiate abusers. In addition to heroin, the 6-keto-opioids, including hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone, have high abuse liability and are self-administered by opiate abusers, but only limited information is available on detection of these compounds by current immunoassay and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) methods. In this study, single doses of hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone were administered to human subjects, and urine samples were collected before and periodically after dosing. Opiate levels were determined in a quantitative mode with four commercial immunoassays, TDx opiates (TDx), Abuscreen radioimmunoassay (ABUS), Coat-A-Count morphine in urine (CAC), and EMIT d.a.u. opiate assay (EMIT), and by GC-MS. GC-MS assay results indicated that hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone administration resulted in rapid excretion of parent drug and O-demethylated metabolites in urine. Peak concentrations occurred within 8 h after drug administration and declined below 300 ng/mL within 24-48 h. Immunoassay testing indicated that hydromorphone, hydrocodone, and oxycodone, but not oxymorphone, were detectable in urine by TDx and EMIT (300-ng/mL cutoff) for 6-24 h. ABUS detected only hydrocodone, and CAC failed to detect any of the four 6-keto-opioid analgesics. Generally, immunoassays for opiates in urine displayed substantially lower sensitivities for 6-keto-opioids compared with GC-MS. Consequently, urine samples containing low to moderate concentrations of hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone will likely go undetected when tested by conventional immunoassays. SN - 0146-4760 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7536861/Forensic_drug_testing_for_opiates__VI__Urine_testing_for_hydromorphone_hydrocodone_oxymorphone_and_oxycodone_with_commercial_opiate_immunoassays_and_gas_chromatography_mass_spectrometry_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jat/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jat/19.1.18 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -