Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats by antibodies against CD2.Eur J Immunol. 1995 May; 25(5):1391-8.EJ
The immunotherapeutic potential of three anti-rat CD2 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) (OX34, OX54, OX55) and the combination of OX54 with OX55 was tested in Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In actively induced EAE, a single injection of OX34 2 days before immunization with myelin basic protein (MBP) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) completely prevented or greatly attenuated EAE in all animals. Injection of OX54 acted moderately suppressive while OX55 or OX54/55 did not affect disease severity. Abrogation of EAE by OX34 was not restricted to its application before immunization. Therapeutic administration of all three mAb and the Ab combination from onset of first clinical signs efficiently blocked progression of disease and prevented all animals from developing hind limb paresis. In adoptive transfer EAE induced with in vitro activated cells of an encephalitogenic T helper line, clinical and histological signs were completely prevented by injection of OX34 on the day of cell transfer and 4 days later, underlining the strong impact of anti-CD2 mAb on the effector phase of disease. Immunocytofluorometric analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes after a single Ab injection demonstrated that all mAb induced a variable degree of transient reduction in T cell numbers and modulation of CD2 antigens. In contrast to the other mAb, OX34 persisted on lymphocytes for at least 11 days, which may explain its unique suppressive effect on EAE after a single injection before immunization. The assumption that prophylactic administration of OX34 also inhibits MBP-induced EAE, due to persistence into the effector phase, was substantiated by the finding that none of the mAb prevented generation of an antigen-specific cellular response in MBP/CFA-immunized animals. Since none of the Ab induced T cell unresponsiveness or inhibited T cell activation by antigen- or Ab-mediated stimulation of the T cell receptor, we suggest that their marked action on the effector phase of EAE may rely on inhibition of T cell infiltration into the central nervous system. The demonstrated efficacy of these anti-CD2 mAb in EAE suggests a potential therapeutic role that may be equal to that of anti-CD4 or anti-T cell receptor Ab.