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Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by 7-methyl-6,8-bis(methylthio)pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine, an in vivo metabolite of oltipraz.

Abstract

Oltipraz, an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in vitro (ED50 approximately 10 microM), undergoes extensive metabolism in vivo. Most of the orally administered drug undergoes opening of the dithiolethione ring, reduction, recyclization, and methylation to form 7-methyl-6,8-bis(methylthio)pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine ("metabolite III"). We report here that metabolite III inhibits viral replication in vitro (ED50 approximately 25 microM) in acutely infected H9 and CEM T cell lymphoma cell lines. Although both metabolite III and oltipraz were able to inhibit phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated viral replication in the chronically infected U1 promonocytic leukemia cell line, only metabolite III was able to inhibit phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated viral replication in chronically infected ACH-2 T cell lymphoma cells. The results with ACH-2 cells suggest that oltipraz inhibits an early stage of the viral life cycle, whereas metabolite III affects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication at a step distal to viral integration. This is consistent with the finding that oltipraz inhibits reverse transcriptase, whereas metabolite III does not. Although the mean ED50 for metabolite III in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells was 18 microM, the ED50 was below 5 microM in three of eight independent experiments. Studies of metabolite III in combination with oltipraz in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated significant antiviral synergy. These results raise the possibility that the in vitro potency of oltipraz may underestimate its antiretroviral activity in vivo. Based on these results, the pharmacokinetics of oltipraz and metabolite III will be compared with the pharmacodynamic effects of orally administered oltipraz in a forthcoming phase I/II trial of oltipraz in patients with p24 antigenemia.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    , ,

    Source

    Molecular pharmacology 48:1 1995 Jul pg 15-20

    MeSH

    Antiviral Agents
    Cell Line
    HIV Reverse Transcriptase
    HIV-1
    Humans
    Pyrazines
    Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
    Tumor Cells, Cultured
    Virus Replication

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    7542738

    Citation

    Prochaska, H J., et al. "Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication By 7-methyl-6,8-bis(methylthio)pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine, an in Vivo Metabolite of Oltipraz." Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 48, no. 1, 1995, pp. 15-20.
    Prochaska HJ, Bornmann WG, Baron P, et al. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by 7-methyl-6,8-bis(methylthio)pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine, an in vivo metabolite of oltipraz. Mol Pharmacol. 1995;48(1):15-20.
    Prochaska, H. J., Bornmann, W. G., Baron, P., & Polsky, B. (1995). Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by 7-methyl-6,8-bis(methylthio)pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine, an in vivo metabolite of oltipraz. Molecular Pharmacology, 48(1), pp. 15-20.
    Prochaska HJ, et al. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication By 7-methyl-6,8-bis(methylthio)pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine, an in Vivo Metabolite of Oltipraz. Mol Pharmacol. 1995;48(1):15-20. PubMed PMID: 7542738.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by 7-methyl-6,8-bis(methylthio)pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine, an in vivo metabolite of oltipraz. AU - Prochaska,H J, AU - Bornmann,W G, AU - Baron,P, AU - Polsky,B, PY - 1995/7/1/pubmed PY - 1995/7/1/medline PY - 1995/7/1/entrez SP - 15 EP - 20 JF - Molecular pharmacology JO - Mol. Pharmacol. VL - 48 IS - 1 N2 - Oltipraz, an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in vitro (ED50 approximately 10 microM), undergoes extensive metabolism in vivo. Most of the orally administered drug undergoes opening of the dithiolethione ring, reduction, recyclization, and methylation to form 7-methyl-6,8-bis(methylthio)pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine ("metabolite III"). We report here that metabolite III inhibits viral replication in vitro (ED50 approximately 25 microM) in acutely infected H9 and CEM T cell lymphoma cell lines. Although both metabolite III and oltipraz were able to inhibit phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated viral replication in the chronically infected U1 promonocytic leukemia cell line, only metabolite III was able to inhibit phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated viral replication in chronically infected ACH-2 T cell lymphoma cells. The results with ACH-2 cells suggest that oltipraz inhibits an early stage of the viral life cycle, whereas metabolite III affects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication at a step distal to viral integration. This is consistent with the finding that oltipraz inhibits reverse transcriptase, whereas metabolite III does not. Although the mean ED50 for metabolite III in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells was 18 microM, the ED50 was below 5 microM in three of eight independent experiments. Studies of metabolite III in combination with oltipraz in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated significant antiviral synergy. These results raise the possibility that the in vitro potency of oltipraz may underestimate its antiretroviral activity in vivo. Based on these results, the pharmacokinetics of oltipraz and metabolite III will be compared with the pharmacodynamic effects of orally administered oltipraz in a forthcoming phase I/II trial of oltipraz in patients with p24 antigenemia. SN - 0026-895X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7542738/Inhibition_of_human_immunodeficiency_virus_type_1_replication_by_7_methyl_68_bis_methylthio_pyrrolo[12_a]pyrazine_an_in_vivo_metabolite_of_oltipraz_ L2 - http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=7542738 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -