Effect of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device on hormonal profile and menstrual pattern after long-term use.Contraception. 1995 Jun; 51(6):359-65.C
In the present study 14 women after 6 years' use of levonorgestrel-releasing IUD were investigated for the changes of LH, progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL) and serum binding globulin (SHBG) in relation to the levonorgestrel levels throughout a segment of 26-40 days with the aim of comparing the hormonal profiles with those during the first year of use of Lng-IUD. Ultrasound scanning was used to follow the development of follicles along with the RIA measurement of hormones. The results of serum LH, P and E2 showed ovulation in 11 cases with either normal menstrual cycles (5 cases), prolonged or irregular cycles (4 cases) or with amenorrhea for 2-3 years (2 cases). One case showed insufficiency of luteal function and 2 cases showed anovulation but with follicular hyperactivity. Higher percentages of ovulatory cycles (78.5%) were found after 6 years of use. No case of complete suppression of ovulation was found. Anovulatory cycles only constituted 14.3%. Clinically, the development of follicles followed by ultrasound scanning further confirmed the hormonal findings. The persistent enlargement of follicles coincided with high levels of E2. After 6 years of use, the serum levels of levonorgestrel were still maintained at mean levels of 314.26 pmol/L and 470.63 pmol/L in the ovulatory and anovulatory groups, respectively. It is concluded that over two-thirds of the cases have ovulatory cycles after long-term use of Lng-IUD; the contraceptive effect is mainly due to its local action on the endometrium, with much less effect on the ovarian function.