Coffee consumption, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking as determinants of serum total and HDL cholesterol in two Serbian cohorts of the Seven Countries Study.Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1995 Nov; 15(11):1793-7.AT
The associations between serum total and HDL cholesterol and three lifestyle factors--consumption of Turkish coffee, consumption of alcohol, and cigarette smoking--were examined in two Serbian cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. In 1988 and 1989, 319 men from Zrenjanin and Belgrade, 65 to 84 years old and free of myocardial infraction, participated. The men from Zrenjanin were originally working in a large cooperative, and the men from Belgrade were faculty members of the university. HDL cholesterol, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking were significantly higher in Zrenjanin than in Belgrade. Serum total cholesterol levels and coffee consumption were not different. ANCOVA showed that serum total cholesterol levels were 8.2% higher (P < .05) in men consuming two small cups of coffee per day compared with abstainers, and this was also seen after adjustment for cigarette smoking, age, body mass index, cohort, and alcohol consumption. In men consuming one or more alcoholic drinks per day (more than 10 g/d alcohol), HDL cholesterol levels were increased by 0.19 mmol/L (15.4%) compared with men consuming no alcohol (P < .001). This association was stronger in the Zrenjanin cohort than in the Belgrade cohort (P < .05). Smoking was not associated with total cholesterol or with HDL cholesterol levels. In Serbian men, boiled Turkish coffee and alcohol consumption are independently associated with serum total and HDL cholesterol levels, respectively.