Comparative radiographic analysis of parameters in feet with and without hallux valgus.Foot Ankle Int. 1995 Mar; 16(3):139-43.FA
This study involved the radiographic examination of 118 feet from 110 urban African female patients. Fifty-two of the 118 feet showed radiographic evidence of hallux valgus (valgus angle > 15 degrees). The parameters compared between feet with and without hallux valgus were sesamoid position, pes planus deformity, metatarsal length, and the cuneiform-metatarsal articulation. All radiographs were standardized, weightbearing anteroposterior and lateral views. The results were statistically analyzed. The findings showed no difference between the hallux valgus and control groups with respect to sesamoid position relative to the second metatarsal, incidence of pes planus, relative length of the first metatarsal, and the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform articulation.