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A two-year program of aerobics and weight training enhances bone mineral density of young women.

Abstract

Previous research suggests that physical activity may have a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in women. This relationship was explored in a 2-year, randomized, intervention trial investigating the efficacy of exercise and calcium supplementation on increasing peak bone mass in young women. One hundred and twenty-seven subjects (ages of 20-35 years) were randomly assigned either to an exercise program that contained both aerobics and weight training components or to a stretching program. Calcium supplementation (up to 1500 mg/day including dietary intake) or placebo was given in a double-blinded design to all subjects. Spinal trabecular BMD was determined using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Spinal integral, femoral neck, and trochanteric BMD were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and calcaneal BMD by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Fitness variables included maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), and isokinetic muscle performance of the trunk and thigh. Measurements were made at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. Sixty-three subjects (32 exercise, 31 stretching) completed the study, and all the measured bone parameters indicated a positive influence of the exercise intervention. There were significant positive differences in BMD between the exercise and stretching groups for spinal trabecular (2.5%), femoral neck (2.4%), femoral trochanteric (2.3%), and calcaneal (6.4%) measurements. The exercise group demonstrated a significant gain in BMD for spinal integral (1.3 +/- 2.8%, p < 0.02), femoral trochanteric (2.6 +/- 6.1%, p < 0.05), and calcaneal (5.6 +/- 5.1, p < 0.01) measurements. In contrast to exercise, the calcium intervention had no positive effect on any of the bone parameters. In regard to fitness parameters, the exercise group completed the study with significant gains in VO2max and isokinetic (peak torque) values for the knee flexion and extension and trunk extension. This study indicates that over a 2-year period, a combined regimen of aerobics and weight training has beneficial effects on BMD and fitness parameters in young women. However, the addition of daily calcium supplementation does not add significant benefit to the intervention.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

    , , ,

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    MeSH

    Absorptiometry, Photon
    Adult
    Asian Continental Ancestry Group
    Body Height
    Body Weight
    Bone Density
    Calcaneus
    Calcium, Dietary
    Double-Blind Method
    European Continental Ancestry Group
    Exercise
    Female
    Femur
    Femur Neck
    Humans
    Longitudinal Studies
    Physical Fitness
    Spine
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Tomography, X-Ray Computed
    Weight Lifting

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    7610928

    Citation

    Friedlander, A L., et al. "A Two-year Program of Aerobics and Weight Training Enhances Bone Mineral Density of Young Women." Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 10, no. 4, 1995, pp. 574-85.
    Friedlander AL, Genant HK, Sadowsky S, et al. A two-year program of aerobics and weight training enhances bone mineral density of young women. J Bone Miner Res. 1995;10(4):574-85.
    Friedlander, A. L., Genant, H. K., Sadowsky, S., Byl, N. N., & Glüer, C. C. (1995). A two-year program of aerobics and weight training enhances bone mineral density of young women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 10(4), pp. 574-85.
    Friedlander AL, et al. A Two-year Program of Aerobics and Weight Training Enhances Bone Mineral Density of Young Women. J Bone Miner Res. 1995;10(4):574-85. PubMed PMID: 7610928.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - A two-year program of aerobics and weight training enhances bone mineral density of young women. AU - Friedlander,A L, AU - Genant,H K, AU - Sadowsky,S, AU - Byl,N N, AU - Glüer,C C, PY - 1995/4/1/pubmed PY - 1995/4/1/medline PY - 1995/4/1/entrez KW - NASA Discipline Musculoskeletal KW - NASA Discipline Number 26-10 KW - NASA Program Space Physiology and Countermeasures KW - Non-NASA Center SP - 574 EP - 85 JF - Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research JO - J. Bone Miner. Res. VL - 10 IS - 4 N2 - Previous research suggests that physical activity may have a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in women. This relationship was explored in a 2-year, randomized, intervention trial investigating the efficacy of exercise and calcium supplementation on increasing peak bone mass in young women. One hundred and twenty-seven subjects (ages of 20-35 years) were randomly assigned either to an exercise program that contained both aerobics and weight training components or to a stretching program. Calcium supplementation (up to 1500 mg/day including dietary intake) or placebo was given in a double-blinded design to all subjects. Spinal trabecular BMD was determined using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Spinal integral, femoral neck, and trochanteric BMD were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and calcaneal BMD by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Fitness variables included maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), and isokinetic muscle performance of the trunk and thigh. Measurements were made at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. Sixty-three subjects (32 exercise, 31 stretching) completed the study, and all the measured bone parameters indicated a positive influence of the exercise intervention. There were significant positive differences in BMD between the exercise and stretching groups for spinal trabecular (2.5%), femoral neck (2.4%), femoral trochanteric (2.3%), and calcaneal (6.4%) measurements. The exercise group demonstrated a significant gain in BMD for spinal integral (1.3 +/- 2.8%, p < 0.02), femoral trochanteric (2.6 +/- 6.1%, p < 0.05), and calcaneal (5.6 +/- 5.1, p < 0.01) measurements. In contrast to exercise, the calcium intervention had no positive effect on any of the bone parameters. In regard to fitness parameters, the exercise group completed the study with significant gains in VO2max and isokinetic (peak torque) values for the knee flexion and extension and trunk extension. This study indicates that over a 2-year period, a combined regimen of aerobics and weight training has beneficial effects on BMD and fitness parameters in young women. However, the addition of daily calcium supplementation does not add significant benefit to the intervention. SN - 0884-0431 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7610928/A_two_year_program_of_aerobics_and_weight_training_enhances_bone_mineral_density_of_young_women_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.5650100410 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -