Impact of meat consumption on nutritional quality and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.J Am Diet Assoc. 1995 Aug; 95(8):887-92.JA
To document the contribution of meat consumption to the overall nutritional quality of the diet and assess its impact on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults.
DESIGN AND SETTING
A cross-sectional survey of young adults in Bogalusa, La.
We collected 24-hour dietary recalls from 504 19- to 28-year-olds from 1988 through 1991.
We examined dietary composition by meat consumption quartiles. Analysis of variance and Newman-Keuls range tests were performed.
Young adults consume an average of 6.5 oz meat daily; whites most often consumed beef and blacks most often consumed pork and poultry. Persons in the < 25th percentile for meat consumption consumed a diet closest to recommended levels--with 11% of energy from protein, 55% from carbohydrate, 32% from fat, 11% from saturated fatty acids, and 264 mg dietary cholesterol. In contrast, persons in the > 75th percentile for meat consumption consumed a diet with 18% of energy from protein, 40% from carbohydrate, 41% from fat, 13% from saturated fatty acids, and 372 mg dietary cholesterol. Intakes of heme iron and phosphorus were lower and calcium intake higher in persons in the < 25th percentile compared with those in the > 75th percentile for meat consumption. The percent of persons meeting two thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances for vitamin B-12, niacin, and zinc was greater in the > 75th percentile for meat consumption compared with the < 25th percentile for meat consumption. We noted no differences across meat consumption quartiles in blood lipids and lipoproteins, anthropometric measurements, and hemoglobin levels.
Consumption of moderate amounts of lean meat, along with healthier choices in other food groups, may be necessary to meet the current dietary recommendations.