Comparisons of dietary intake and sources of fat in low- and high-fat diets of 18- to 24-year-olds.J Am Diet Assoc 1995; 95(8):893-7JA
To determine the sources of fat in the diets of 18- to 24-year-olds and to identify the food group choices of those consuming 30% of energy or less from fat.
This study compared the fat intake, nutrient intake, and food group choices of young men and women consuming 30% or less or more than 30% of energy from fat.
The 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by individuals (CSFII) provided the study sample of 1,062 (436 men and 626 women) 18- to 24-year-olds residing in the 48 coterminous states who completed one 24-hour food recall and two 1-day food records.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Dietary fat, vitamin, mineral, and food group intakes were determined by analysis of the 24-hour food recalls and the 1-day food records.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMED
Tests were used to detect differences in nutrient and food group intakes between the two groups for both men and women.
More than 75% of the sample consumed more than 30% of energy from fat. The men and women who consumed low-fat diets did so by choosing more low-fat dairy products, fruits, and grains. Men who consumed low-fat diets consumed significantly more alcohol than other men; women who consumed low-fat diets showed a similar trend although the difference was not statistically significant. Although men and women who consumed a high-fat diet did consume significantly greater amounts of fat and cholesterol, they also fared better in vitamin and mineral intake.
A minority of young adults consumed 30% or less of energy from fat. Compared with those who consumed more than 30% of energy from fat, men consumed significantly greater mean amounts of vitamin C and folate, and women consumed significantly greater mean amounts of vitamin A and folate. Young adults who consumed more than 30% of energy from fat exceeded current recommendations for dietary fat intake; however, the men were less likely to be at risk for calcium deficiency and the women were less likely to be at risk for vitamin E and zinc deficiencies. Because excess dietary fat and alcohol can lead to chronic disease, dietitians should continue to educate people about the relationship between nutrition and health.