Augmented inflammatory cytokines in primary dengue infection progressing to shock.Singapore Med J. 1995 Apr; 36(2):218-21.SM
Dengue fever (DF) which is caused by four serotypes of dengue virus may in some cases progress into a life threatening situation of dengue haemorrhage fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). It has been suggested that sequential infection with different dengue virus serotypes predisposes the patient towards DHF/DSS. We report here a primary dengue infection in a 10-year-old boy progressing from DF to DSS while under clinical observation. The report provides unequivocal evidence for the development of DSS in primary dengue infection caused by virus serotype 4. The close relationship between sequential changes in the levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), Interleukin 1 and 6 (IL-1 and IL-6) in the serum, to the clinical progression of the disease from DF to DHF/DSS and then to full recovery implicates a pathogenetic role for the inflammatory cytokines. The child also manifested clinical features consistent with Reye's syndrome and this suggests a common pathogenetic origin for DSS and the Reye-like syndrome induced by dengue virus.