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Effects of nitric oxide on antral motility and gastric emptying in humans.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1995 Feb; 7(2):97-102.EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

It has been suggested that nitric oxide is a nonadrenergic-noncholinergic (NANC) inhibitory neurotransmitter released by the nerves in the gastrointestinal tract. We studied the influence of nitric oxide on gastric emptying and antral motility using glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a donor of nitric oxide and L-arginine as the substrate of nitric oxide synthase.

DESIGN

Six male volunteers (aged 21-24 years) participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

METHODS

We investigated the effects of 0.8 mg sublingual GTN, 300 mg/kg/h intravenous L-arginine or placebo on meal-stimulated antral motility and gastric emptying on four separate occasions. After an overnight fast, a 500 ml standard liquid meal was ingested and the gastric emptying rate assessed by ultrasound. The changes in antral cross-sectional areas were measured by ultrasonography and the antral motor activity was determined simultaneously using a multilumen perfused catheter. Blood samples were taken from fasted and fed patients before and after the administration of GTN, L-arginine or placebo to determine plasma glucagon and somatostatin levels.

RESULTS

GTN at a sublingual dose of 0.8 mg and 300 mg/kg/h intravenous L-arginine significantly (P < 0.01) prolonged gastric emptying half-time, averaging 56 +/- 12 and 38 +/- 8 min, respectively, compared with the placebo control value (28 +/- 7 min). The antral motor activity, calculated as the motility index (number of contractions x mmHg/min) significantly decreased in both test series, i.e., after GTN from 375.5 +/- 185.1 (control) to 104.4 +/- 55.7 (P < 0.01) and after L-arginine from 401 +/- 76 (control) to 285 +/- 57 (P < 0.05). L-arginine given intravenously at a dose of 300 mg/kg/h significantly increased plasma glucagon and somatostatin in fasted patients and increased postprandially released glucagon without affecting postprandial plasma somatostatin levels. GTN did not affect plasma hormone levels.

CONCLUSIONS

Our results indicate that (1) exogenous nitric oxide inhibits gastric emptying and antral motor activity, which could be useful in the treatment of patients with functional disturbances of gastric motility and emptying; and (2) the reduction in gastric emptying and antral motility observed after the administration of L-arginine results from changes in plasma enterohormone release rather than from the enhanced formation of endogenous nitric oxide.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine B, University of Münster, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

7712314

Citation

Konturek, J W., et al. "Effects of Nitric Oxide On Antral Motility and Gastric Emptying in Humans." European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 7, no. 2, 1995, pp. 97-102.
Konturek JW, Thor P, Domschke W. Effects of nitric oxide on antral motility and gastric emptying in humans. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1995;7(2):97-102.
Konturek, J. W., Thor, P., & Domschke, W. (1995). Effects of nitric oxide on antral motility and gastric emptying in humans. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 7(2), 97-102.
Konturek JW, Thor P, Domschke W. Effects of Nitric Oxide On Antral Motility and Gastric Emptying in Humans. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1995;7(2):97-102. PubMed PMID: 7712314.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of nitric oxide on antral motility and gastric emptying in humans. AU - Konturek,J W, AU - Thor,P, AU - Domschke,W, PY - 1995/2/1/pubmed PY - 1995/2/1/medline PY - 1995/2/1/entrez SP - 97 EP - 102 JF - European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology JO - Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol VL - 7 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that nitric oxide is a nonadrenergic-noncholinergic (NANC) inhibitory neurotransmitter released by the nerves in the gastrointestinal tract. We studied the influence of nitric oxide on gastric emptying and antral motility using glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a donor of nitric oxide and L-arginine as the substrate of nitric oxide synthase. DESIGN: Six male volunteers (aged 21-24 years) participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind study. METHODS: We investigated the effects of 0.8 mg sublingual GTN, 300 mg/kg/h intravenous L-arginine or placebo on meal-stimulated antral motility and gastric emptying on four separate occasions. After an overnight fast, a 500 ml standard liquid meal was ingested and the gastric emptying rate assessed by ultrasound. The changes in antral cross-sectional areas were measured by ultrasonography and the antral motor activity was determined simultaneously using a multilumen perfused catheter. Blood samples were taken from fasted and fed patients before and after the administration of GTN, L-arginine or placebo to determine plasma glucagon and somatostatin levels. RESULTS: GTN at a sublingual dose of 0.8 mg and 300 mg/kg/h intravenous L-arginine significantly (P < 0.01) prolonged gastric emptying half-time, averaging 56 +/- 12 and 38 +/- 8 min, respectively, compared with the placebo control value (28 +/- 7 min). The antral motor activity, calculated as the motility index (number of contractions x mmHg/min) significantly decreased in both test series, i.e., after GTN from 375.5 +/- 185.1 (control) to 104.4 +/- 55.7 (P < 0.01) and after L-arginine from 401 +/- 76 (control) to 285 +/- 57 (P < 0.05). L-arginine given intravenously at a dose of 300 mg/kg/h significantly increased plasma glucagon and somatostatin in fasted patients and increased postprandially released glucagon without affecting postprandial plasma somatostatin levels. GTN did not affect plasma hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that (1) exogenous nitric oxide inhibits gastric emptying and antral motor activity, which could be useful in the treatment of patients with functional disturbances of gastric motility and emptying; and (2) the reduction in gastric emptying and antral motility observed after the administration of L-arginine results from changes in plasma enterohormone release rather than from the enhanced formation of endogenous nitric oxide. SN - 0954-691X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7712314/Effects_of_nitric_oxide_on_antral_motility_and_gastric_emptying_in_humans_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -