Effect of cooking temperature on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried meat products and pan residues.Carcinogenesis. 1995 Apr; 16(4):861-7.C
Frequent consumers of meat have an increased risk of colorectal cancer and possibly also of breast, stomach, pancreas and urinary bladder cancer. Bacon, 'Falusausage', ground beef, meatballs, pork belly, pork chops and sliced beef account for more than one-third of the intake of fried meat of the population of Stockholm of age 50-75. These dishes were fried at four temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 degrees C) representing normal household cooking practices in Stockholm. Heterocyclic amines in these dishes were analysed using solid-phase extraction and HPLC. The heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were recovered. The formation of IQ was favoured by moderate cooking temperatures; IQ was detected in one meat sample cooked at 150 degrees C and in some pan residues. The yield of MeIQx, DiMeIQx and PhIP increased with the temperature. For several of the meat dishes, the content of heterocyclic amines in the pan residue was as large or larger than for corresponding piece of meat. The highest levels of MeIQx were 23.7 ng/g in the meat and 23.3 ng/g in the pan residue. Corresponding data for DiMeIQx were 2.7 and 4.1 ng/g and for PhIP 12.7 and 82.4 ng/g. The study leaves little doubt that mutagenic heterocyclic amines are ingested by the population of Stockholm, and added to previous epidemiological studies from the same area, the combined data are consistent with human carcinogenicity of heterocyclic amines. However, analytical epidemiological studies are needed before any statement on causality can be made.