Urinary citrate, bone resorption and intestinal alkali absorption in stone formers with fasting hypercalciuria.Scanning Microsc 1994; 8(3):531-8; discussion 538-9SM
Reduced citrate in urine and increased fasting excretion of calcium are abnormalities frequently reported in stone forming (SF) patients. Increased dietary acid (or reduced alkali) introduction or absorption may be a potential cause of both these pathological findings. To test this hypothesis, we studied 64 SF patients (32 with fasting hypercalciuria (FH) and 32 without FH (NFH)). After a basal evaluation for nephrolithiasis, while on a 500 mg calcium diet, they were evaluated for: (1) daily intestinal alkali absorption (IAA), by urinary electrolyte excretion; (2) basal concentrations of PTH, calcitonin (CT) and 1,25(OH)2-VitD; (3) oral calcium load for evaluation of changes in calcium and hydroxyproline urinary excretions; (4) intestinal calcium absorption (18 patients), with double curve analysis (stable Sr as tracer); and (5) changes in citrate excretion after an alkali load (50 mEq of a mixture of calcium gluconate, lactate and carbonate) in 10 patients. The results demonstrated: (1) FH stone formers had reduced citrate excretion and lower mean IAA levels than NFH stone formers; (2) FH stone formers also had higher bone resorption levels with lower PTH and higher CT levels; (3) IAA levels were related to both citrate excretion and bone turnover indices; and (4) the increases in citrate excretion after oral alkali load were strictly related to basal IAA values (index of alkali absorption and/or generation after oral load), demonstrating that a different absorptive capacity of alkali rather than a different dietary content may underlie these metabolic abnormalities.