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Gymnasts exhibit higher bone mass than runners despite similar prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.
J Bone Miner Res. 1995 Jan; 10(1):26-35.JB

Abstract

Female athletes exhibit a higher prevalence of exercise-associated amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea compared with nonathletic women, and both conditions are related to reduced bone mineral density (BMD), particularly at the spine. This study investigated bone mass and oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in two groups of competitive female athletes with different skeletal loading patterns: gymnasts and runners. Bone mineral density (g/cm2) of the femoral neck, lumbar spine (L2-4), and whole body was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (QDR-1000/W, Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA) in collegiate gymnasts (n = 21) and runners (n = 20), and nonathletic college women (n = 19). The runners and gymnasts had similar values for percent body fat (14.7 +/- 2.2% and 15.6 +/- 2.9%, respectively), which were lower (p < 0.001) than controls (22.3 +/- 3.0%). Lean body mass (LBM) did not differ among the groups, but when adjusted for body surface area, gymnasts had a higher LBM/height2 (p = 0.0001) compared with runners and controls. Muscle strength was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in gymnasts for quadriceps, biceps, and hip adductor force, compared with runners and controls. Gymnasts had a significantly later menarche age (16.2 +/- 1.7 years) compared with runners (14.4 +/- 1.7 years) and controls (13.0 +/- 1.2 years). The prevalence of oligo- and amenorrhea was 47% for gymnasts (6 amenorrheic, 4 oligomenorrheic), 30% for runners (3 amenorrheic, 3 oligomenorrheic), and 0% for controls. Furthermore, athletic groups had similar menstrual histories given the higher proportion of gymnasts who had experienced primary amenorrhea. When evaluated since menarche, however, runners had somewhat longer histories due to an earlier age at menarche and slightly older ages. Dietary calcium intake did not differ among groups, although mean values were below the RDA of 1200 mg/day. By athletic group, BMD at any site did not differ among women with amenorrhea versus oligomenorrhea versus eumenorrhea, although there was a trend for the regularly menstruating athletes in both groups to have slightly higher values. Lumbar spine BMD was lower (p = 0.0001) in runners (0.98 +/- 0.11 g/cm2) compared with both gymnasts and controls (1.17 +/- 0.13 and 1.11 +/- 0.11 g/cm2, respectively). Femoral neck BMD differed among all groups (p = 0.0001): gymnasts = 1.09 +/- 0.12 g/cm2 > controls = 0.97 +/- 0.10 g/cm2 > runners = 0.88 +/- 0.11 g/cm2. Whole body BMD was lower (p < 0.01) in runners (1.04 +/- 0.06 g/cm2) compared with gymnasts and controls (1.11 +/- 0.08 and 1.09 +/- 0.06 g/cm2, respectively).(

ABSTRACT

TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Exercise & Sport Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

7747628

Citation

Robinson, T L., et al. "Gymnasts Exhibit Higher Bone Mass Than Runners Despite Similar Prevalence of Amenorrhea and Oligomenorrhea." Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 10, no. 1, 1995, pp. 26-35.
Robinson TL, Snow-Harter C, Taaffe DR, et al. Gymnasts exhibit higher bone mass than runners despite similar prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. J Bone Miner Res. 1995;10(1):26-35.
Robinson, T. L., Snow-Harter, C., Taaffe, D. R., Gillis, D., Shaw, J., & Marcus, R. (1995). Gymnasts exhibit higher bone mass than runners despite similar prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 10(1), 26-35.
Robinson TL, et al. Gymnasts Exhibit Higher Bone Mass Than Runners Despite Similar Prevalence of Amenorrhea and Oligomenorrhea. J Bone Miner Res. 1995;10(1):26-35. PubMed PMID: 7747628.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Gymnasts exhibit higher bone mass than runners despite similar prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. AU - Robinson,T L, AU - Snow-Harter,C, AU - Taaffe,D R, AU - Gillis,D, AU - Shaw,J, AU - Marcus,R, PY - 1995/1/1/pubmed PY - 1995/1/1/medline PY - 1995/1/1/entrez SP - 26 EP - 35 JF - Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research JO - J. Bone Miner. Res. VL - 10 IS - 1 N2 - Female athletes exhibit a higher prevalence of exercise-associated amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea compared with nonathletic women, and both conditions are related to reduced bone mineral density (BMD), particularly at the spine. This study investigated bone mass and oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in two groups of competitive female athletes with different skeletal loading patterns: gymnasts and runners. Bone mineral density (g/cm2) of the femoral neck, lumbar spine (L2-4), and whole body was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (QDR-1000/W, Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA) in collegiate gymnasts (n = 21) and runners (n = 20), and nonathletic college women (n = 19). The runners and gymnasts had similar values for percent body fat (14.7 +/- 2.2% and 15.6 +/- 2.9%, respectively), which were lower (p < 0.001) than controls (22.3 +/- 3.0%). Lean body mass (LBM) did not differ among the groups, but when adjusted for body surface area, gymnasts had a higher LBM/height2 (p = 0.0001) compared with runners and controls. Muscle strength was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in gymnasts for quadriceps, biceps, and hip adductor force, compared with runners and controls. Gymnasts had a significantly later menarche age (16.2 +/- 1.7 years) compared with runners (14.4 +/- 1.7 years) and controls (13.0 +/- 1.2 years). The prevalence of oligo- and amenorrhea was 47% for gymnasts (6 amenorrheic, 4 oligomenorrheic), 30% for runners (3 amenorrheic, 3 oligomenorrheic), and 0% for controls. Furthermore, athletic groups had similar menstrual histories given the higher proportion of gymnasts who had experienced primary amenorrhea. When evaluated since menarche, however, runners had somewhat longer histories due to an earlier age at menarche and slightly older ages. Dietary calcium intake did not differ among groups, although mean values were below the RDA of 1200 mg/day. By athletic group, BMD at any site did not differ among women with amenorrhea versus oligomenorrhea versus eumenorrhea, although there was a trend for the regularly menstruating athletes in both groups to have slightly higher values. Lumbar spine BMD was lower (p = 0.0001) in runners (0.98 +/- 0.11 g/cm2) compared with both gymnasts and controls (1.17 +/- 0.13 and 1.11 +/- 0.11 g/cm2, respectively). Femoral neck BMD differed among all groups (p = 0.0001): gymnasts = 1.09 +/- 0.12 g/cm2 > controls = 0.97 +/- 0.10 g/cm2 > runners = 0.88 +/- 0.11 g/cm2. Whole body BMD was lower (p < 0.01) in runners (1.04 +/- 0.06 g/cm2) compared with gymnasts and controls (1.11 +/- 0.08 and 1.09 +/- 0.06 g/cm2, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) SN - 0884-0431 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7747628/Gymnasts_exhibit_higher_bone_mass_than_runners_despite_similar_prevalence_of_amenorrhea_and_oligomenorrhea_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.5650100107 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -