Average intake of anti-oxidant (pro)vitamins and subsequent cancer mortality in the 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study.Int J Cancer. 1995 May 16; 61(4):480-4.IJ
This ecologic study aimed to investigate whether differences in population mortality from lung, stomach and colorectal cancer among the 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study could be explained by differences in the average intake of anti-oxidant (pro)vitamins. In the 1960s, detailed dietary information was collected in small sub-samples of the cohorts by the dietary record method. In 1987, food-equivalent composites representing the average food intake of each cohort at baseline were collected locally and analyzed in a central laboratory. The vital status of all participants was verified after 25 years of follow-up. The average intake of vitamin C was strongly inversely related to the 25-year stomach-cancer mortality (r = -0.66, p = 0.01), also after adjustment for smoking and intake of salt or nitrate. The average intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol were not independently related to mortality from lung, stomach or colorectal cancer, nor was vitamin C related to lung and colorectal cancer.