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Dietary change and obesity associated with glucose intolerance in Alaska Natives.
J Am Diet Assoc 1995; 95(6):676-82JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate frequency of food intake, body weight, and glucose intolerance in Alaska Natives.

DESIGN

Height, weight, and random blood glucose levels were measured and a frequency-of-food-intake questionnaire was obtained. This questionnaire classified persons as consumers of indigenous foods or nonindigenous foods within three food groups. Those with a random blood glucose measurement > or = 6.72 mmol/L received an oral glucose tolerance test.

SETTING

Community screening in 15 villages in Alaska.

SUBJECTS

Nutrition screenings were done for 1,124 Alaska Native residents aged 20 years or older. An oral glucose tolerance test was done for 202 subjects.

OUTCOMES MEASURED

Subjects were classified as consumers of indigenous or nonindigenous foods within three food groups. A diagnosis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was made on the basis of World Health Organization criteria. A determination of overweight was made on the basis of National Center for Health Statistics criteria.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

A chi 2 test with Yates correction, t test, and linear regression, with two-sided P values.

RESULTS

Athabascan Indians had twice the rate of NIDDM as Yup'ik Eskimos with significantly higher frequency of nonindigenous food intake, plus lower frequency of indigenous carbohydrate and fat intake. Subjects < or = 30 years old consumed significantly more nonindigenous protein and fat and low-nutrient-density carbohydrates than those > or = 60 years old. Persons who had glucose intolerance reported significantly greater consumption of nonindigenous protein and less seal oil. Incidence of overweight was significantly higher than was found 25 years ago. Participants with glucose intolerance were significantly more overweight than others.

CONCLUSION

A pattern of increased frequency of nonindigenous protein, low-nutrient-density carbohydrate, and fat intake with less indigenous carbohydrate and fat consumption was found in subjects < or = 30 years old and in association with the higher rate of NIDDM found in the Athabascan Indians. Persons with glucose intolerance were significantly more overweight than others.

APPLICATIONS

Although the nutritional value of indigenous foods for reducing disease risk should be promoted, nutrition education, especially among young adults, should also include building skills to select and prepare nonindigenous foods to attain a healthful diet. Although snacking is a concern, dietary fat was the most significant factor in obesity and NIDDM.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Alaska Native Medical Center, Anchorage 99501, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

7759744

Citation

Murphy, N J., et al. "Dietary Change and Obesity Associated With Glucose Intolerance in Alaska Natives." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 95, no. 6, 1995, pp. 676-82.
Murphy NJ, Schraer CD, Thiele MC, et al. Dietary change and obesity associated with glucose intolerance in Alaska Natives. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995;95(6):676-82.
Murphy, N. J., Schraer, C. D., Thiele, M. C., Boyko, E. J., Bulkow, L. R., Doty, B. J., & Lanier, A. P. (1995). Dietary change and obesity associated with glucose intolerance in Alaska Natives. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 95(6), pp. 676-82.
Murphy NJ, et al. Dietary Change and Obesity Associated With Glucose Intolerance in Alaska Natives. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995;95(6):676-82. PubMed PMID: 7759744.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary change and obesity associated with glucose intolerance in Alaska Natives. AU - Murphy,N J, AU - Schraer,C D, AU - Thiele,M C, AU - Boyko,E J, AU - Bulkow,L R, AU - Doty,B J, AU - Lanier,A P, PY - 1995/6/1/pubmed PY - 1995/6/1/medline PY - 1995/6/1/entrez SP - 676 EP - 82 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 95 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequency of food intake, body weight, and glucose intolerance in Alaska Natives. DESIGN: Height, weight, and random blood glucose levels were measured and a frequency-of-food-intake questionnaire was obtained. This questionnaire classified persons as consumers of indigenous foods or nonindigenous foods within three food groups. Those with a random blood glucose measurement > or = 6.72 mmol/L received an oral glucose tolerance test. SETTING: Community screening in 15 villages in Alaska. SUBJECTS: Nutrition screenings were done for 1,124 Alaska Native residents aged 20 years or older. An oral glucose tolerance test was done for 202 subjects. OUTCOMES MEASURED: Subjects were classified as consumers of indigenous or nonindigenous foods within three food groups. A diagnosis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was made on the basis of World Health Organization criteria. A determination of overweight was made on the basis of National Center for Health Statistics criteria. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A chi 2 test with Yates correction, t test, and linear regression, with two-sided P values. RESULTS: Athabascan Indians had twice the rate of NIDDM as Yup'ik Eskimos with significantly higher frequency of nonindigenous food intake, plus lower frequency of indigenous carbohydrate and fat intake. Subjects < or = 30 years old consumed significantly more nonindigenous protein and fat and low-nutrient-density carbohydrates than those > or = 60 years old. Persons who had glucose intolerance reported significantly greater consumption of nonindigenous protein and less seal oil. Incidence of overweight was significantly higher than was found 25 years ago. Participants with glucose intolerance were significantly more overweight than others. CONCLUSION: A pattern of increased frequency of nonindigenous protein, low-nutrient-density carbohydrate, and fat intake with less indigenous carbohydrate and fat consumption was found in subjects < or = 30 years old and in association with the higher rate of NIDDM found in the Athabascan Indians. Persons with glucose intolerance were significantly more overweight than others. APPLICATIONS: Although the nutritional value of indigenous foods for reducing disease risk should be promoted, nutrition education, especially among young adults, should also include building skills to select and prepare nonindigenous foods to attain a healthful diet. Although snacking is a concern, dietary fat was the most significant factor in obesity and NIDDM. SN - 0002-8223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7759744/Dietary_change_and_obesity_associated_with_glucose_intolerance_in_Alaska_Natives_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-8223(95)00184-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -