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The combined oral contraceptive. Risks and adverse effects in perspective.
Drug Saf. 1995 Feb; 12(2):91-6.DS

Abstract

The risks and adverse effects of the low dose, new generation progestogen combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are much lower than original studies involving pills containing 50 micrograms estrogen. The main effects are those on the cardiovascular system, lipid and glucose metabolism and cancer. Any effect of the COC on myocardial infarction is probably minimal if the woman has no other risk factors especially smoking. The third generation progestogen, low dose COCs have very little effect on lipid or glucose metabolism. There may be a slight increase in breast cancer if COCs are used under the age of 25 years and for more than 4 to 8 years, and in the risk of cervical cancer. It is too early to estimate long term cancer effects of the newer COCs. Adverse effects such as nausea and breast tenderness can be managed by changing the estrogen dose or the type of progestogen. Overall, the clinical benefits of the COC probably outweight the risks and adverse effects.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Manager Medical Services, New Zealand Family Planning Association, Christchurch.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

7766340

Citation

Bagshaw, S. "The Combined Oral Contraceptive. Risks and Adverse Effects in Perspective." Drug Safety, vol. 12, no. 2, 1995, pp. 91-6.
Bagshaw S. The combined oral contraceptive. Risks and adverse effects in perspective. Drug Saf. 1995;12(2):91-6.
Bagshaw, S. (1995). The combined oral contraceptive. Risks and adverse effects in perspective. Drug Safety, 12(2), 91-6.
Bagshaw S. The Combined Oral Contraceptive. Risks and Adverse Effects in Perspective. Drug Saf. 1995;12(2):91-6. PubMed PMID: 7766340.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The combined oral contraceptive. Risks and adverse effects in perspective. A1 - Bagshaw,S, PY - 1995/2/1/pubmed PY - 1995/2/1/medline PY - 1995/2/1/entrez KW - Biology KW - Breast Cancer KW - Cancer KW - Cardiovascular Effects KW - Cervical Cancer KW - Contraception KW - Contraceptive Methods--side effects KW - Critique KW - Demographic Factors KW - Diseases KW - Embolism KW - Evaluation KW - Family Planning KW - Fertility KW - Hypertension KW - Liver Neoplasms KW - Metabolic Effects KW - Neoplasms KW - Oral Contraceptives, Combined--side effects KW - Oral Contraceptives, Low-dose KW - Oral Contraceptives--side effects KW - Physiology KW - Population KW - Population Dynamics KW - Risk Assessment KW - Risk Factors KW - Thromboembolism KW - Vascular Diseases SP - 91 EP - 6 JF - Drug safety JO - Drug Saf VL - 12 IS - 2 N2 - The risks and adverse effects of the low dose, new generation progestogen combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are much lower than original studies involving pills containing 50 micrograms estrogen. The main effects are those on the cardiovascular system, lipid and glucose metabolism and cancer. Any effect of the COC on myocardial infarction is probably minimal if the woman has no other risk factors especially smoking. The third generation progestogen, low dose COCs have very little effect on lipid or glucose metabolism. There may be a slight increase in breast cancer if COCs are used under the age of 25 years and for more than 4 to 8 years, and in the risk of cervical cancer. It is too early to estimate long term cancer effects of the newer COCs. Adverse effects such as nausea and breast tenderness can be managed by changing the estrogen dose or the type of progestogen. Overall, the clinical benefits of the COC probably outweight the risks and adverse effects. SN - 0114-5916 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7766340/The_combined_oral_contraceptive__Risks_and_adverse_effects_in_perspective_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00002018-199512020-00002 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -