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Energy expenditure and body fat distribution in Mohawk children.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Epidemiologic studies suggest that Native Americans, including the Mohawk people, have a high prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk. However, current information on alterations in related variables such as energy metabolism and body composition in Native Americans is almost exclusively limited to already obese Pima adults living in the Southwest. The aim of this study was to characterize energy metabolism and body composition in young Mohawk children (17 girls, 11 boys; aged 4 to 7 years) as compared to Caucasian children (36 girls, 34 boys; aged 4 to 7 years). Total energy expenditure was measured by doubly labeled water, postprandial resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, and activity energy expenditure was derived from the difference between total and resting energy expenditure. Fat and fat free mass were estimated from bioelectrical resistance, and body fat distribution was estimated from skinfolds and circumferences.

RESULTS

There were no significant effects of ethnic background or sex on body weight, height, or body mass index. Fat free mass was significantly higher in boys and fat mass was significantly higher in girls, with no effect of ethnic background. Chest skinfold thickness, the ratio of trunk skinfolds:extremity skinfolds, and the waist:hip ratio were significantly higher in Mohawk children by 2.5 mm, 0.09 units, and 0.03 units, respectively, independent of sex and fat mass. Total energy expenditure was significantly higher in Mohawk children compared to Caucasian (100 kcal/day in girls, 150 kcal/day in boys), independent of fat free mass and sex, due to a significantly higher physical activity-related energy expenditure.

CONCLUSION

These data suggest that: 1) body fat is more centrally distributed in Mohawk relative to Caucasian children, and this effect is independent of sex and body fat content; 2) Mohawk children have a greater total energy expenditure than Caucasian children, independent of fat free mass, due to greater physical activity-related energy expenditure.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington.

    , , , ,

    Source

    Pediatrics 95:1 1995 Jan pg 89-95

    MeSH

    Adipose Tissue
    Analysis of Variance
    Body Composition
    Body Constitution
    Body Mass Index
    Child
    Child, Preschool
    Energy Metabolism
    European Continental Ancestry Group
    Female
    Humans
    Indians, North American
    Male
    New York
    Regression Analysis
    Skinfold Thickness

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    7770316

    Citation

    Goran, M I., et al. "Energy Expenditure and Body Fat Distribution in Mohawk Children." Pediatrics, vol. 95, no. 1, 1995, pp. 89-95.
    Goran MI, Kaskoun M, Johnson R, et al. Energy expenditure and body fat distribution in Mohawk children. Pediatrics. 1995;95(1):89-95.
    Goran, M. I., Kaskoun, M., Johnson, R., Martinez, C., Kelly, B., & Hood, V. (1995). Energy expenditure and body fat distribution in Mohawk children. Pediatrics, 95(1), pp. 89-95.
    Goran MI, et al. Energy Expenditure and Body Fat Distribution in Mohawk Children. Pediatrics. 1995;95(1):89-95. PubMed PMID: 7770316.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Energy expenditure and body fat distribution in Mohawk children. AU - Goran,M I, AU - Kaskoun,M, AU - Johnson,R, AU - Martinez,C, AU - Kelly,B, AU - Hood,V, PY - 1995/1/1/pubmed PY - 1995/1/1/medline PY - 1995/1/1/entrez SP - 89 EP - 95 JF - Pediatrics JO - Pediatrics VL - 95 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Epidemiologic studies suggest that Native Americans, including the Mohawk people, have a high prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk. However, current information on alterations in related variables such as energy metabolism and body composition in Native Americans is almost exclusively limited to already obese Pima adults living in the Southwest. The aim of this study was to characterize energy metabolism and body composition in young Mohawk children (17 girls, 11 boys; aged 4 to 7 years) as compared to Caucasian children (36 girls, 34 boys; aged 4 to 7 years). Total energy expenditure was measured by doubly labeled water, postprandial resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, and activity energy expenditure was derived from the difference between total and resting energy expenditure. Fat and fat free mass were estimated from bioelectrical resistance, and body fat distribution was estimated from skinfolds and circumferences. RESULTS: There were no significant effects of ethnic background or sex on body weight, height, or body mass index. Fat free mass was significantly higher in boys and fat mass was significantly higher in girls, with no effect of ethnic background. Chest skinfold thickness, the ratio of trunk skinfolds:extremity skinfolds, and the waist:hip ratio were significantly higher in Mohawk children by 2.5 mm, 0.09 units, and 0.03 units, respectively, independent of sex and fat mass. Total energy expenditure was significantly higher in Mohawk children compared to Caucasian (100 kcal/day in girls, 150 kcal/day in boys), independent of fat free mass and sex, due to a significantly higher physical activity-related energy expenditure. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that: 1) body fat is more centrally distributed in Mohawk relative to Caucasian children, and this effect is independent of sex and body fat content; 2) Mohawk children have a greater total energy expenditure than Caucasian children, independent of fat free mass, due to greater physical activity-related energy expenditure. SN - 0031-4005 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7770316/Energy_expenditure_and_body_fat_distribution_in_Mohawk_children_ L2 - http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=7770316 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -