Glutathione- and glutathione-S-transferase-dependent oxidative desulfuration of the thione xenobiotic diethyldithiocarbamate methyl ester.Mol Pharmacol. 1994 Dec; 46(6):1217-25.MP
Oxidative desulfuration of diethyldithiocarbamate methyl ester (DDTC-Me), a thione xenobiotic and a metabolite of disulfiram, was studied. Using a rat liver microsomal incubation system, DDTC-Me was oxidized at the thionosulfur group, forming DDTC-Me sulfine. Only minimal desulfuration of DDTC-Me to S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiolcarbamate (DETC-Me) occurred. Desulfuration of DDTC-Me increased 4-fold when the microsomal incubation was supplemented with reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased 8-fold when both GSH and glutathione-S-transferase (EC 126.96.36.199) were added. Similar results were obtained using a simplified system containing DDTC-Me sulfine, GSH, and glutathione-S-transferase. This suggested that DDTC-Me sulfine is a stable intermediate formed before DDTC-Me is desulfurated to DETC-Me. This unprecedented desulfuration process can be explained as follows. GSH attacks the oxithiirane isomer of DDTC-Me sulfine, resulting in ring opening followed by loss of glutathione hydrodisulfide, which is reduced by GSH to oxidized glutathione and H2S. GSH can also reduce DDTC-Me sulfine to DDTC-Me. This mechanism is supported by in vitro studies. An approximately 1:1 stoichiometry was observed for the formation of H2S and DETC-Me. A 1:1 stoichiometry was also observed for the consumption of DDTC-Me sulfine, formation of DETC-Me plus DDTC-Me, and formation of oxidized glutathione. Glutathione hydrodisulfide was trapped by derivatization in situ using 4-vinylpyridine. Oxidative desulfuration of a series of dithiocarbamate esters also followed a similar mechanism.