Esophageal varices.Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 1994 Oct; 4(4):747-71.GE
Numerous conditions lead to portal hypertension with the development of esophageal varices. Treatment for acute variceal hemorrhage should progress in a logical, stepwise fashion. Therapy after fluid resuscitation includes vasopressin, somatostatin, or a Sengstaken-Blakemore tube. This is followed by treatment with sclerotherapy, variceal ligation, or a combination of both. Continued bleeding is managed by more invasive measures that include radiologic embolization or shunting, esophageal transection, distal splenorenal shunt, or liver transplantation. Beta-blockade may be useful to prevent recurrent bleeding in compliant patients without medical conditions that would preclude use of beta-blockade. Once control of the bleeding has been achieved, sclerotherapy or ligation should be used to obliterate the varices, but prophylactic use of sclerosant is not particularly beneficial.