Iron status of a healthy French population: factors determining biochemical markers.Ann Nutr Metab. 1994; 38(4):192-202.AN
The iron status of a representative population sample in a district of Paris area (France) was assessed using a biochemical and dietary approach. Complete data were obtained for 1,108 subjects 6 months to 97 years old. Total iron intake increased up to adolescence and then remained stable in adult life. Iron intake was higher in men than in women. Most children and menstruating women presented a dietary iron intake below the recommended allowances. While anemia was not very common, iron deficiency (defined as the existence of at least two abnormal values in the four independent indicators of iron status: serum ferritin, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, transferrin saturation and MCV) was particularly common in infants, young children, menstruating women and elderly men. Serum ferritin, erythrocyte protoporphyrin and transferrin saturation were significantly correlated with inflammatory markers. Significant correlations were found between dietary total iron and serum ferritin (r = 0.29, p < 0.001) and hemoglobin (r = 0.44, p < 0.001). After adjustment for age, sex and inflammation, using multiple linear regression models, the relationship between both heme and nonheme iron intake and serum ferritin remained significant. Serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels were negatively correlated with calcium and phosphorus intake.