Complicated infectious coryza outbreaks in Argentina.Avian Dis. 1994 Jul-Sep; 38(3):672-8.AD
Seventeen complicated outbreaks of infectious coryza in layer, broiler-breeder, and broiler flocks were studied. In the layer flock outbreaks, drops in egg production of up to 35% were seen. In the broiler flocks and several of the layer flocks, losses due to persistent mortality and/or culling varied between 2 and 5%. Signs of infectious coryza in both layers and broiler-breeders were typical; in broilers, however, swollen head-like syndrome was seen. Except in one flock, no viral diseases were clinically or serologically detected. Excluding broiler-breeders, birds from most other flocks were serologically positive for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and some were also positive for M. synoviae. Haemophilus paragallinarum was isolated from all of the outbreaks, but only as a pure culture in three outbreaks. Isolation of H. paragallinarum from sites such as liver, kidney, and particularly tarsal arthritis and ocular globes appears to be reported for the first time. Serovar A was isolated in eight outbreaks, serovar B in six, serovar C in one, and untypable serovars in two. The severity of these infectious coryza outbreaks may have been increased by concurrent salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, and mycoplasmosis, although under certain conditions H. paragallinarum is able to cause septicemia. Ten of the outbreaks occurred in birds vaccinated against infectious coryza; this may be due to the use of vaccines that do not provide protection against the types of H. paragallinarum that affect poultry in the region.