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The metabolism and availability of essential fatty acids in animal and human tissues.
Reprod Nutr Dev. 1994; 34(6):539-68.RN

Abstract

Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are not synthesized in animal and human tissues, belong to the n-6 and n-3 families of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), derived from linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3n-3). Optimal requirements are 3-6% of ingested energy for LA and 0.5-1% for LNA in adults. Requirements in LNA are higher in development. Dietary sources of LA and LNA are principally plants, while arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) is found in products from terrestrian animals, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are found in products from marine animals. EFA are principally present in dietary triacylglycerols, which should be hydrolyzed by lipases in gastric and intestinal lumen. DHA seems to be released more slowly than the others. Its intestinal absorption is delayed but not decreased. Long-chain PUFAs are incorporated in noticeable amounts in chylomicron phospholipids. However, their uptake by tissues is no more rapid than uptake of shorter chain PUFA. In tissues, LA and LNA, which constitute the major part of dietary EFA, should be converted into fatty acids of longer and more unsaturated chain by alternate desaturation (delta 6, delta 5, delta 4)-elongation reactions. Animal tissues are more active in this biosynthesis than human tissues. Liver is one of the most active organs and its role is critical in providing less active tissues, particularly the brain, with long-chain PUFA secreted in VLDL (very low density lipoprotein). In liver, many nutritional, hormonal and physiological factors act on the PUFA biosynthesis. Dietary fatty acids exert a great influence and are often inhibitory. Dietary LNA inhibits delta 6 desaturation of LA. The desaturation products AA, EPA, and DHA inhibit delta 6 desaturation of LA and delta 5 desaturation of DGLA (dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid). With regard to hormones, insulin and thyroxin are necessary to delta 6 and delta 5 desaturation activities, whereas other hormones (glucagon, epinephrine, ACTH, glucocorticoids) inhibit desaturation. Concerning the physiological factors, the age of individuals is critical. In the fetus, the liver and the brain are capable of converting LA and LNA into longer-chain EFA, but these are also delivered by the mother, after synthesis in the maternal liver and placenta. Just after birth, in animals, the delta 6 desaturation activity increases in the liver and decreases in the brain. In aging, the capacity of the whole liver to desaturate LA and DGLA is equal at 1.5 and 25 months of age in rats fed a balanced diet throughout their life and the AA and DHA content of tissue phospholipids is unchanged in aging.(

ABSTRACT

TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Authors+Show Affiliations

Nutrition Cellulaire et Métabolique (EA DRED 564), Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

7840871

Citation

Bézard, J, et al. "The Metabolism and Availability of Essential Fatty Acids in Animal and Human Tissues." Reproduction, Nutrition, Development, vol. 34, no. 6, 1994, pp. 539-68.
Bézard J, Blond JP, Bernard A, et al. The metabolism and availability of essential fatty acids in animal and human tissues. Reprod Nutr Dev. 1994;34(6):539-68.
Bézard, J., Blond, J. P., Bernard, A., & Clouet, P. (1994). The metabolism and availability of essential fatty acids in animal and human tissues. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development, 34(6), 539-68.
Bézard J, et al. The Metabolism and Availability of Essential Fatty Acids in Animal and Human Tissues. Reprod Nutr Dev. 1994;34(6):539-68. PubMed PMID: 7840871.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The metabolism and availability of essential fatty acids in animal and human tissues. AU - Bézard,J, AU - Blond,J P, AU - Bernard,A, AU - Clouet,P, PY - 1994/1/1/pubmed PY - 1994/1/1/medline PY - 1994/1/1/entrez SP - 539 EP - 68 JF - Reproduction, nutrition, development JO - Reprod Nutr Dev VL - 34 IS - 6 N2 - Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are not synthesized in animal and human tissues, belong to the n-6 and n-3 families of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), derived from linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3n-3). Optimal requirements are 3-6% of ingested energy for LA and 0.5-1% for LNA in adults. Requirements in LNA are higher in development. Dietary sources of LA and LNA are principally plants, while arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) is found in products from terrestrian animals, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are found in products from marine animals. EFA are principally present in dietary triacylglycerols, which should be hydrolyzed by lipases in gastric and intestinal lumen. DHA seems to be released more slowly than the others. Its intestinal absorption is delayed but not decreased. Long-chain PUFAs are incorporated in noticeable amounts in chylomicron phospholipids. However, their uptake by tissues is no more rapid than uptake of shorter chain PUFA. In tissues, LA and LNA, which constitute the major part of dietary EFA, should be converted into fatty acids of longer and more unsaturated chain by alternate desaturation (delta 6, delta 5, delta 4)-elongation reactions. Animal tissues are more active in this biosynthesis than human tissues. Liver is one of the most active organs and its role is critical in providing less active tissues, particularly the brain, with long-chain PUFA secreted in VLDL (very low density lipoprotein). In liver, many nutritional, hormonal and physiological factors act on the PUFA biosynthesis. Dietary fatty acids exert a great influence and are often inhibitory. Dietary LNA inhibits delta 6 desaturation of LA. The desaturation products AA, EPA, and DHA inhibit delta 6 desaturation of LA and delta 5 desaturation of DGLA (dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid). With regard to hormones, insulin and thyroxin are necessary to delta 6 and delta 5 desaturation activities, whereas other hormones (glucagon, epinephrine, ACTH, glucocorticoids) inhibit desaturation. Concerning the physiological factors, the age of individuals is critical. In the fetus, the liver and the brain are capable of converting LA and LNA into longer-chain EFA, but these are also delivered by the mother, after synthesis in the maternal liver and placenta. Just after birth, in animals, the delta 6 desaturation activity increases in the liver and decreases in the brain. In aging, the capacity of the whole liver to desaturate LA and DGLA is equal at 1.5 and 25 months of age in rats fed a balanced diet throughout their life and the AA and DHA content of tissue phospholipids is unchanged in aging.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) SN - 0926-5287 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7840871/The_metabolism_and_availability_of_essential_fatty_acids_in_animal_and_human_tissues_ L2 - http://publications.edpsciences.org/10.1051/rnd:19940603 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -