Is tubal ligation a risk factor for low bone density and increased risk of fracture?Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 172(1 Pt 1):101-5AJ
Osteoporosis is a major women's health problem, because it is responsible for about 1.3 million fractures in the United States each year. Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Recent evidence has indicated that tubal ligation may cause menstrual dysfunction and estrogen deficiency. This study examined the association between tubal ligation and bone mass in a group of elderly postmenopausal women.
Subjects were 2215 white women > or = 65 years old participating in the Baltimore center of the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Bone mineral density of the proximal and distal radius and the calcaneus was measured by single photon absorptiometry. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine whether tubal ligation had an independent effect on bone density. The effect of tubal ligation on the risk of hip and osteoporotic fractures was estimated by Cox proportional hazards model.
Women who reported a tubal ligation had lower, although not statistically significant, bone density of the radius and calcaneus. The relative risk of hip (1.05, 95% confidence limit 0.84 to 1.32) and osteoporotic fractures (1.01, 0.80 to 1.29) was not significantly increased in women with tubal ligation.
We conclude that elderly women who had a tubal ligation have small changes in bone density that are not of sufficient magnitude to increase their risk of osteoporotic fractures.