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Models of functional organization as a method for detecting cognitive deficits: data from a sample of social drinkers.
J Stud Alcohol. 1994 Nov; 55(6):726-38.JS

Abstract

Literature on the cognitive deficits associated with social drinkers' chronic use of alcohol at moderate to heavy levels is equivocal. As an alternative to detecting impairment through measures of mean performance levels, the functional organization of cognitive skills in infrequent and heavy alcohol users was compared. Subjects (N = 364) were adolescent and young adult participants in a longitudinal study of health status and psychoactive substance use. LISREL was used to identify group invariance in the number and nature of cognitive components underlying performance. Results showed that a model with three cognitive components (general intelligence/abstraction, spatial relations/visual-motor speed, and immediate memory) best represented performance in both infrequent use and heavy use groups. There were some group differences in the role of unspecified processing components, but no clear evidence for alcohol-related shifts in functional organization was found. The hypothesis of cognitive compensation, which highlights methodological problems in deficit-detection research, is evaluated with respect to the potential value of using changes in functional organization, that is, the latent structure of performance, to uncover the neurotoxic effects of alcohol or other drug use. More definitive tests of the compensation hypothesis will require prospective, within-subject comparisons of functional organization in clinical as well as nonclinical samples.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Pennsylvania, Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute, Philadelphia 19129.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

7861802

Citation

Tracy, J I., and M E. Bates. "Models of Functional Organization as a Method for Detecting Cognitive Deficits: Data From a Sample of Social Drinkers." Journal of Studies On Alcohol, vol. 55, no. 6, 1994, pp. 726-38.
Tracy JI, Bates ME. Models of functional organization as a method for detecting cognitive deficits: data from a sample of social drinkers. J Stud Alcohol. 1994;55(6):726-38.
Tracy, J. I., & Bates, M. E. (1994). Models of functional organization as a method for detecting cognitive deficits: data from a sample of social drinkers. Journal of Studies On Alcohol, 55(6), 726-38.
Tracy JI, Bates ME. Models of Functional Organization as a Method for Detecting Cognitive Deficits: Data From a Sample of Social Drinkers. J Stud Alcohol. 1994;55(6):726-38. PubMed PMID: 7861802.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Models of functional organization as a method for detecting cognitive deficits: data from a sample of social drinkers. AU - Tracy,J I, AU - Bates,M E, PY - 1994/11/1/pubmed PY - 1994/11/1/medline PY - 1994/11/1/entrez SP - 726 EP - 38 JF - Journal of studies on alcohol JO - J Stud Alcohol VL - 55 IS - 6 N2 - Literature on the cognitive deficits associated with social drinkers' chronic use of alcohol at moderate to heavy levels is equivocal. As an alternative to detecting impairment through measures of mean performance levels, the functional organization of cognitive skills in infrequent and heavy alcohol users was compared. Subjects (N = 364) were adolescent and young adult participants in a longitudinal study of health status and psychoactive substance use. LISREL was used to identify group invariance in the number and nature of cognitive components underlying performance. Results showed that a model with three cognitive components (general intelligence/abstraction, spatial relations/visual-motor speed, and immediate memory) best represented performance in both infrequent use and heavy use groups. There were some group differences in the role of unspecified processing components, but no clear evidence for alcohol-related shifts in functional organization was found. The hypothesis of cognitive compensation, which highlights methodological problems in deficit-detection research, is evaluated with respect to the potential value of using changes in functional organization, that is, the latent structure of performance, to uncover the neurotoxic effects of alcohol or other drug use. More definitive tests of the compensation hypothesis will require prospective, within-subject comparisons of functional organization in clinical as well as nonclinical samples. SN - 0096-882X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7861802/Models_of_functional_organization_as_a_method_for_detecting_cognitive_deficits:_data_from_a_sample_of_social_drinkers_ L2 - https://www.jsad.com/doi/10.15288/jsa.1994.55.726 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -