Vaccination against typhoid fever: present status.Bull World Health Organ. 1994; 72(6):957-71.BW
Typhoid fever remains an underestimated important health problem in many developing countries, causing more than 600,000 deaths annually in the world. Because of the reactogenicity of the parenteral, killed whole-cell vaccine, research has been oriented towards vaccination orally using live organisms and purified antigen. Live vaccine Ty21a, given by the oral route, has been extensively tested in several studies in developing countries. Its liquid formulation was the most effective, providing more than 60% protection after 7 years of follow-up. A Vi polysaccharide vaccine has been elaborated and provided more than 65% protection; after 3 years of follow-up the Vi antibody level was still at a high level. These two vaccines are therefore candidates for use in public health control programmes. Before such use, however, they need further evaluation for safety and protective efficacy when administered to the EPI-targeted age groups. The question of whether typhoid fever vaccines interfere with the response to simultaneously administered measles vaccine must also be studied. New live vaccines, given by the oral route in one dose, have been constructed through genetic engineering. The first results are promising, but they must be improved before use in a large-scale study. These strains could be used as live vector to deliver foreign antigens to the intestinal mucosa.