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Anatomy of the hyoid apparatus in Odontoceti (toothed whales): specializations of their skeleton and musculature compared with those of terrestrial mammals.
Anat Rec. 1994 Dec; 240(4):598-624.AR

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The hyoid apparatus of odontocetes (toothed whales) serves as a major attachment point for many of the muscles and ligaments subserving breathing, swallowing, and sound production.

METHODS

This study examines the hyoid apparatus in 48 specimens of ten odontocete genera (Phocoena, Lagenorhynchus, Stenella, Delphinus, Tursiops, Grampus, Globicephala, Mesoplodon, Physeter, and Kogia) collected post mortem from beach strandings.

RESULTS

The odontocete hyoid apparatus, as that of their closest terrestrial relatives, the artiodactyls, is divisible into a basal portion (basihyal, paired thyrohyals) and a suspensory portion (paired ceratohyals, epihyals, stylohyals, and tympanohyals) connecting the basal portion to the skull base. Unlike other terrestrial mammals, the basal portion lies inferior to the laryngeal aditus, is flattened dorso-ventrally, and is relatively large, thus providing a broad surface area for muscle attachments. The suspensory elements are not as flattened and are joined by synovial joints (except for epihyal-stylohyal fusion). Muscular specializations include enlargement of those which retract the hyoid apparatus (e.g., sternohyoid) or control the tongue (e.g., styloglossus, hyoglossus). These muscles may be particularly important in a specialized prey capture behavior called suction feeding. In addition, the hyoid apparatus has a tilted placement, which allows asymmetrical enlargement of the piriform sinuses. Asymmetry is also seen in the muscular attachments between the larynx and the hyoid apparatus. The most pronounced differences from the basic pattern are observed in two families: Physeteridae and Ziphiidae.

CONCLUSIONS

The derived position and shape of the odontocete hyoid apparatus may have evolved to subserve several specialized upper respiratory/digestive tract functions, such as simultaneous feeding (suction and swallowing) and sound production.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Cell Biology/Anatomy, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029-6574.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

7879911

Citation

Reidenberg, J S., and J T. Laitman. "Anatomy of the Hyoid Apparatus in Odontoceti (toothed Whales): Specializations of Their Skeleton and Musculature Compared With Those of Terrestrial Mammals." The Anatomical Record, vol. 240, no. 4, 1994, pp. 598-624.
Reidenberg JS, Laitman JT. Anatomy of the hyoid apparatus in Odontoceti (toothed whales): specializations of their skeleton and musculature compared with those of terrestrial mammals. Anat Rec. 1994;240(4):598-624.
Reidenberg, J. S., & Laitman, J. T. (1994). Anatomy of the hyoid apparatus in Odontoceti (toothed whales): specializations of their skeleton and musculature compared with those of terrestrial mammals. The Anatomical Record, 240(4), 598-624.
Reidenberg JS, Laitman JT. Anatomy of the Hyoid Apparatus in Odontoceti (toothed Whales): Specializations of Their Skeleton and Musculature Compared With Those of Terrestrial Mammals. Anat Rec. 1994;240(4):598-624. PubMed PMID: 7879911.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Anatomy of the hyoid apparatus in Odontoceti (toothed whales): specializations of their skeleton and musculature compared with those of terrestrial mammals. AU - Reidenberg,J S, AU - Laitman,J T, PY - 1994/12/1/pubmed PY - 1994/12/1/medline PY - 1994/12/1/entrez SP - 598 EP - 624 JF - The Anatomical record JO - Anat. Rec. VL - 240 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: The hyoid apparatus of odontocetes (toothed whales) serves as a major attachment point for many of the muscles and ligaments subserving breathing, swallowing, and sound production. METHODS: This study examines the hyoid apparatus in 48 specimens of ten odontocete genera (Phocoena, Lagenorhynchus, Stenella, Delphinus, Tursiops, Grampus, Globicephala, Mesoplodon, Physeter, and Kogia) collected post mortem from beach strandings. RESULTS: The odontocete hyoid apparatus, as that of their closest terrestrial relatives, the artiodactyls, is divisible into a basal portion (basihyal, paired thyrohyals) and a suspensory portion (paired ceratohyals, epihyals, stylohyals, and tympanohyals) connecting the basal portion to the skull base. Unlike other terrestrial mammals, the basal portion lies inferior to the laryngeal aditus, is flattened dorso-ventrally, and is relatively large, thus providing a broad surface area for muscle attachments. The suspensory elements are not as flattened and are joined by synovial joints (except for epihyal-stylohyal fusion). Muscular specializations include enlargement of those which retract the hyoid apparatus (e.g., sternohyoid) or control the tongue (e.g., styloglossus, hyoglossus). These muscles may be particularly important in a specialized prey capture behavior called suction feeding. In addition, the hyoid apparatus has a tilted placement, which allows asymmetrical enlargement of the piriform sinuses. Asymmetry is also seen in the muscular attachments between the larynx and the hyoid apparatus. The most pronounced differences from the basic pattern are observed in two families: Physeteridae and Ziphiidae. CONCLUSIONS: The derived position and shape of the odontocete hyoid apparatus may have evolved to subserve several specialized upper respiratory/digestive tract functions, such as simultaneous feeding (suction and swallowing) and sound production. SN - 0003-276X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7879911/Anatomy_of_the_hyoid_apparatus_in_Odontoceti__toothed_whales_:_specializations_of_their_skeleton_and_musculature_compared_with_those_of_terrestrial_mammals_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.1092400417 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -