Case study: paradoxical response to naltrexone treatment of self-injurious behavior.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995 Feb; 34(2):238-42.JA
Opioid receptor antagonists have been studied in the management of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in developmentally disabled individuals. The authors present a case of a severely retarded, autistic man whose SIB increased dramatically during a trial of naltrexone. A paradoxical increase in SIB, attributed to the extinction burst phenomenon during the initial period of nonreward, is known to occur during treatment with naloxone, a short-acting parenteral opioid antagonist. It has only once been reported during treatment with naltrexone, a long-acting orally administered agent. Opioid analgesic effects and learning theory can explain both increases and decreases in SIB after opioid blockade.