Protective action of dopamine against glutamate neurotoxicity in the retina.Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Feb; 35(2):685-95.IO
The electrophysiologic study using patch-clamp techniques demonstrated that NMDA-induced currents had properties similar to those recorded in the brain.
Primary cultures obtained from the fetal rat retina (gestation days 16 to 19) were used for the experiment. Immunocytochemical and electrophysiologic studies were done to identify the cultured cells. The neurotoxic effects of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on the retinal cultures were quantitatively assessed using the trypan blue exclusion method.
The immunocytochemical study revealed that the major component of the rat retinal cultures was neurons including amacrine cells. The electrophysiologic study using patch-clamp techniques demonstrated that exposure to NMDA-induced currents with properties characteristic of those recorded in the brain. Brief exposure of these neurons to glutamate or NMDA induced delayed cell death. Glutamate neurotoxicity was prevented by the application of dopamine and forskolin. The protective action of dopamine was antagonized by a D1 receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) but not by D2 receptor antagonists (domperidone and sulpiride). A D1 receptor agonist (SKF 38393) protected glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas a D2 receptor agonist (quinpirole) did not affect it.
These findings demonstrate that dopamine protects retinal neuronal cells against NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate neurotoxicity via D1 receptors.