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Apolipoprotein E phenotypes and serum lipids in newborns and 3-year-old children: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.
Pediatrics 1994; 94(4 Pt 1):489-93Ped

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) phenotype is a genetic determinant of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, that are classical coronary heart disease risk factors. ApoE appears in three major isoforms E2, E3, and E4, coded by corresponding alleles epsilon 2, epsilon 3, and epsilon 4. These give rise to six different phenotypes.

OBJECTIVE

To study the associations of apoE phenotype with cord serum lipids (during minimal enteral nutrition), and with serum lipids of 3-year-old children.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS

We determined serum lipid levels and apoE phenotypes in 206 newborns and 259 3-year-old children in connection with a larger follow-up study of atherosclerosis precursors in children and young adults. ApoE phenotyping was done directly from plasma by isoelectric focusing followed by immunoblotting.

RESULTS

The effect of apoE phenotype on serum total and LDL cholesterol was significantly different in newborns and 3-year-old children (two-way ANOVA, interaction between apoE phenotype and age group: P < .001 for both). In 3-year-old children, the concentrations of serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol increased with apoE phenotype in the order of E3/2, E3/3, E4/3, and E4/4, in both males and females (P < .0001). On the contrary, in neonates total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations were low and did not differ significantly between apoE phenotypes (P > .05) either in males or in females. The mean serum levels of triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not differ between apoE phenotypes either in 3-year-old children or newborns.

CONCLUSIONS

The results show that the differences in serum total and LDL cholesterol levels between apoE phenotypes are formed after birth by the influence of environmental factors and suggest that both genetic and external factors influence the levels of serum cholesterol concentrations during the first years of life.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Tampere, Finland.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

7936857

Citation

Lehtimäki, T, et al. "Apolipoprotein E Phenotypes and Serum Lipids in Newborns and 3-year-old Children: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study." Pediatrics, vol. 94, no. 4 Pt 1, 1994, pp. 489-93.
Lehtimäki T, Porkka K, Viikari J, et al. Apolipoprotein E phenotypes and serum lipids in newborns and 3-year-old children: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Pediatrics. 1994;94(4 Pt 1):489-93.
Lehtimäki, T., Porkka, K., Viikari, J., Ehnholm, C., Akerblom, H. K., & Nikkari, T. (1994). Apolipoprotein E phenotypes and serum lipids in newborns and 3-year-old children: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Pediatrics, 94(4 Pt 1), pp. 489-93.
Lehtimäki T, et al. Apolipoprotein E Phenotypes and Serum Lipids in Newborns and 3-year-old Children: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Pediatrics. 1994;94(4 Pt 1):489-93. PubMed PMID: 7936857.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Apolipoprotein E phenotypes and serum lipids in newborns and 3-year-old children: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. AU - Lehtimäki,T, AU - Porkka,K, AU - Viikari,J, AU - Ehnholm,C, AU - Akerblom,H K, AU - Nikkari,T, PY - 1994/10/1/pubmed PY - 1994/10/1/medline PY - 1994/10/1/entrez SP - 489 EP - 93 JF - Pediatrics JO - Pediatrics VL - 94 IS - 4 Pt 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) phenotype is a genetic determinant of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, that are classical coronary heart disease risk factors. ApoE appears in three major isoforms E2, E3, and E4, coded by corresponding alleles epsilon 2, epsilon 3, and epsilon 4. These give rise to six different phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: To study the associations of apoE phenotype with cord serum lipids (during minimal enteral nutrition), and with serum lipids of 3-year-old children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We determined serum lipid levels and apoE phenotypes in 206 newborns and 259 3-year-old children in connection with a larger follow-up study of atherosclerosis precursors in children and young adults. ApoE phenotyping was done directly from plasma by isoelectric focusing followed by immunoblotting. RESULTS: The effect of apoE phenotype on serum total and LDL cholesterol was significantly different in newborns and 3-year-old children (two-way ANOVA, interaction between apoE phenotype and age group: P < .001 for both). In 3-year-old children, the concentrations of serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol increased with apoE phenotype in the order of E3/2, E3/3, E4/3, and E4/4, in both males and females (P < .0001). On the contrary, in neonates total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations were low and did not differ significantly between apoE phenotypes (P > .05) either in males or in females. The mean serum levels of triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not differ between apoE phenotypes either in 3-year-old children or newborns. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the differences in serum total and LDL cholesterol levels between apoE phenotypes are formed after birth by the influence of environmental factors and suggest that both genetic and external factors influence the levels of serum cholesterol concentrations during the first years of life. SN - 0031-4005 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7936857/Apolipoprotein_E_phenotypes_and_serum_lipids_in_newborns_and_3_year_old_children:_the_Cardiovascular_Risk_in_Young_Finns_Study_ L2 - http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=7936857 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -