Mental retardation, congenital heart defect, cleft palate, short stature, and facial anomalies: a new X-linked multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome: clinical description and molecular studies.Am J Med Genet. 1994 Jul 15; 51(4):591-7.AJ
We report on two brothers and their two maternal uncles with severe mental retardation, congenital heart defect, cleft or highly arched palate, short stature and craniofacial anomalies consisting of microcephaly, abnormal ears, bulbous nose, broad nasal bridge, malar hypoplasia, and micrognathia. Three of the four patients died at an early age. The mother of the two brothers had an atrial septal defect. She is assumed to be a manifesting carrier of a mutant gene, which is expressed in her two sons and two brothers. By multipoint linkage analysis it is found that the most likely location of the responsible gene is the pericentromeric region Xp21.3-q21.3 with DMD and DXS3 as flanking markers. Maximum information is obtained with marker DXS453 (Z = 1.20 at theta = 0.0).