[Effects of coronary angioplasty on heart rate variability explored in the domain of time and frequency in patients with one-vessel coronary disease].G Ital Cardiol. 1994 Aug; 24(8):973-84.GI
Heart period variability is frequently reduced in patients with coronary artery disease. Although the mechanism for this reduction is still unclear, it seems to reflect alterations in cardiac autonomic control. In this study we have evaluated the relation between reversible segmental left ventricular dysfunction and time and frequency domain measures of heart period variability in patients with coronary artery disease.
METHODS AND RESULTS
Echocardiographic segmental left ventricular wall motion and time and frequency domain measures of heart period variability were evaluated in 32 patients with one-vessel coronary artery disease before and 16-24 days after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). At baseline examination 12 patients (Group A) had normal and 20 (Group B) abnormal regional wall motion. Prevalence of previous myocardial infarction was higher and mean angiographic ejection fraction lower in Group B than in Group A. At baseline, time domain measures were comparable between the 2 groups, while low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) power were lower in Group B than in Group A. After PTCA, in Group A regional wall motion and time and frequency domain measures of heart period variability were unchanged. In Group B summed segment score improved from 17.1 +/- 3.6 to 12.8 +/- 2.0 (p < 0.01) and a significant increase occurred in standard deviation of the average normal RR (NN) intervals for all 5-minute segments of a 24-hour recording (SDNN index), in root mean square successive difference (r-MSSD) and in the percentage of differences between adjacent NN intervals > 50 msec (pNN50). In this group also LF and HF power (logarithmic units) increased from 6.14 +/- 0.23 to 6.35 +/- 0.34 (p < 0.01) and from 5.43 +/- 0.32 to 5.68 +/- 0.52 (p < 0.01) respectively. There was no correlation between measures of heart period variability, summed segment score, and left ventricular ejection fraction.
This study demonstrates that segmental left ventricular dysfunction is involved in determining sympathovagal imbalance in patients with one-vessel coronary artery disease; the reversal of left ventricular dysfunction by successful PTCA improves heart period variability. These findings support the hypothesis that alterations in cardiac geometry may influence the discharge of afferent sympathetic mechanoreceptors, thus contributing to the derangement in autonomic control of heart rate.