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Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.
Sci Total Environ. 1994 Sep 16; 154(2-3):107-28.ST

Abstract

By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (< 0.1 microgram/g), followed by ringed seal, (0.1-1 microgram/g range). Levels are an order of magnitude higher in beluga and narwhal (1-10 micrograms/g range). It appears that metabolism and excretion of S-DDT and PCBs may be less efficient in cetaceans, leading to greater biomagnification. Polar bears have similar levels of PCBs as cetaceans (1-10 micrograms/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are lowest in polar bear, indicating rapid metabolism. Effects of age and sex on residue levels are found for all species where this was measured. Among cetaceans and ringed seal, sexually mature females have lower levels than males due to lactation. Although PCB levels in adult male polar bears are about twice as high as females, there is only a trivial age effect in either sex apart from an initial decrease from birth to sexual maturity (age 0-5). Comparison of levels of S-DDT and PCBs in Arctic beluga and ringed seal with those in beluga in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears indicates a gradual increase from Alaska east to Svalbard, except PCB levels are significantly higher in eastern Greenland and Svalbard. Information on temporal trends is somewhat contradictory.(

ABSTRACT

TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Authors+Show Affiliations

Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Québec.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

7973601

Citation

Norstrom, R J., and D C. Muir. "Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Contaminants in Arctic Marine Mammals." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 154, no. 2-3, 1994, pp. 107-28.
Norstrom RJ, Muir DC. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals. Sci Total Environ. 1994;154(2-3):107-28.
Norstrom, R. J., & Muir, D. C. (1994). Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals. The Science of the Total Environment, 154(2-3), 107-28.
Norstrom RJ, Muir DC. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Contaminants in Arctic Marine Mammals. Sci Total Environ. 1994 Sep 16;154(2-3):107-28. PubMed PMID: 7973601.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals. AU - Norstrom,R J, AU - Muir,D C, PY - 1994/9/16/pubmed PY - 1994/9/16/medline PY - 1994/9/16/entrez SP - 107 EP - 28 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci Total Environ VL - 154 IS - 2-3 N2 - By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (< 0.1 microgram/g), followed by ringed seal, (0.1-1 microgram/g range). Levels are an order of magnitude higher in beluga and narwhal (1-10 micrograms/g range). It appears that metabolism and excretion of S-DDT and PCBs may be less efficient in cetaceans, leading to greater biomagnification. Polar bears have similar levels of PCBs as cetaceans (1-10 micrograms/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are lowest in polar bear, indicating rapid metabolism. Effects of age and sex on residue levels are found for all species where this was measured. Among cetaceans and ringed seal, sexually mature females have lower levels than males due to lactation. Although PCB levels in adult male polar bears are about twice as high as females, there is only a trivial age effect in either sex apart from an initial decrease from birth to sexual maturity (age 0-5). Comparison of levels of S-DDT and PCBs in Arctic beluga and ringed seal with those in beluga in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears indicates a gradual increase from Alaska east to Svalbard, except PCB levels are significantly higher in eastern Greenland and Svalbard. Information on temporal trends is somewhat contradictory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) SN - 0048-9697 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7973601/Chlorinated_hydrocarbon_contaminants_in_arctic_marine_mammals_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0048-9697(94)90082-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -