Cancer incidence, mortality and survival: trends in four leading sites.Stat Bull Metrop Insur Co. 1994 Jul-Sep; 75(3):19-27.SB
Cancer mortality rates in the United States have stabilized in the past few years after rising for more than 50 years. Incidence and mortality rates for all cancers tend to be higher among men than women, among blacks than whites and among those over age 65. In 1994 cancer of the lung, prostate, breast, and colon/rectum (colorectal) will account for an estimated 57 percent of all new cancer cases and 55 percent of cancer deaths. Analysis of incidence, mortality and survival rates of these four major cancers indicate some encouraging trends. That is, even though age-adjusted incidence rates continue to increase, it appears that educational and screening efforts are having a positive influence on mortality rates. Lung cancer incidence has declined in recent years following a decrease in smoking among men that began some 20 years ago; evidence also indicates a start of a declining trend in their mortality from this disease, as well. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates among women, however, continue to rise. In 1986 lung cancer became the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Increased use and improved techniques of cancer detection for prostate, breast and colorectal cancers are resulting in larger numbers of these cancers being detected at early stages when they are more readily treatable. It is hoped that such activities will ultimately reduce mortality for these three major cancer sites.