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The differing effects of acute and chronic alcohol on gastric and intestinal permeability.
Am J Gastroenterol. 1994 Dec; 89(12):2205-11.AJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Acute and chronic alcohol intake cause GI symptoms because of either alcohol-induced structural or functional abnormalities. In theory, the disruption of the integrity of the gut mucosa should be reflected by changes in the absorption of molecular probes, such as lactulose, mannitol, and sucrose. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol on the permeability of the gastric and small intestinal mucosa.

METHODS

We measured the absorption of sucrose, mannitol, and lactulose in 20 controls and 18 alcoholics within 3 days after their last drink. We evaluated the reversibility of the abnormalities in alcoholics by repeat testing after 7 to 14 days of sobriety. The acute effects of ethanol in normal controls and abstinent alcoholics were also studied after the administration of ethanol by both the oral and IV routes.

RESULTS

The absorptions of lactulose and sucrose in chronic alcoholics were normal. However, the alcoholics demonstrated a significant decrease in mannitol absorption and a corresponding increase in the lactulose/mannitol ratio. Both parameters returned to normal after a period of sobriety. Acute ethanol did not significantly affect mannitol or lactulose absorption, whereas oral ethanol significantly increased sucrose absorption.

CONCLUSIONS

Chronic ethanol reversibly affects the integrity of small intestinal villi without significantly affecting gastrointestinal permeability. In contrast, a single oral dose of ethanol increases gastroduodenal permeability but has no effect on the lactulose or mannitol permeability of the small intestine. These regional changes in gut permeabilities may contribute to alcohol-induced GI symptoms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, Loyola University of Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

7977243

Citation

Keshavarzian, A, et al. "The Differing Effects of Acute and Chronic Alcohol On Gastric and Intestinal Permeability." The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 89, no. 12, 1994, pp. 2205-11.
Keshavarzian A, Fields JZ, Vaeth J, et al. The differing effects of acute and chronic alcohol on gastric and intestinal permeability. Am J Gastroenterol. 1994;89(12):2205-11.
Keshavarzian, A., Fields, J. Z., Vaeth, J., & Holmes, E. W. (1994). The differing effects of acute and chronic alcohol on gastric and intestinal permeability. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 89(12), 2205-11.
Keshavarzian A, et al. The Differing Effects of Acute and Chronic Alcohol On Gastric and Intestinal Permeability. Am J Gastroenterol. 1994;89(12):2205-11. PubMed PMID: 7977243.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The differing effects of acute and chronic alcohol on gastric and intestinal permeability. AU - Keshavarzian,A, AU - Fields,J Z, AU - Vaeth,J, AU - Holmes,E W, PY - 1994/12/1/pubmed PY - 1994/12/1/medline PY - 1994/12/1/entrez SP - 2205 EP - 11 JF - The American journal of gastroenterology JO - Am. J. Gastroenterol. VL - 89 IS - 12 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Acute and chronic alcohol intake cause GI symptoms because of either alcohol-induced structural or functional abnormalities. In theory, the disruption of the integrity of the gut mucosa should be reflected by changes in the absorption of molecular probes, such as lactulose, mannitol, and sucrose. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol on the permeability of the gastric and small intestinal mucosa. METHODS: We measured the absorption of sucrose, mannitol, and lactulose in 20 controls and 18 alcoholics within 3 days after their last drink. We evaluated the reversibility of the abnormalities in alcoholics by repeat testing after 7 to 14 days of sobriety. The acute effects of ethanol in normal controls and abstinent alcoholics were also studied after the administration of ethanol by both the oral and IV routes. RESULTS: The absorptions of lactulose and sucrose in chronic alcoholics were normal. However, the alcoholics demonstrated a significant decrease in mannitol absorption and a corresponding increase in the lactulose/mannitol ratio. Both parameters returned to normal after a period of sobriety. Acute ethanol did not significantly affect mannitol or lactulose absorption, whereas oral ethanol significantly increased sucrose absorption. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic ethanol reversibly affects the integrity of small intestinal villi without significantly affecting gastrointestinal permeability. In contrast, a single oral dose of ethanol increases gastroduodenal permeability but has no effect on the lactulose or mannitol permeability of the small intestine. These regional changes in gut permeabilities may contribute to alcohol-induced GI symptoms. SN - 0002-9270 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7977243/The_differing_effects_of_acute_and_chronic_alcohol_on_gastric_and_intestinal_permeability_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/alcohol.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -