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Onset and evolution of stunting in infants and children. Examples from the Human Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program. Kenya and Egypt studies.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1994; 48 Suppl 1:S90-102EJ

Abstract

The etiology of the early onset of stunting is diverse among populations of varying biological, environmental and cultural circumstances. This is exemplified within the Nutrition CRSP project, which took place in three different populations and ecological conditions. Within each study area a different mix and varying proportions of causative factors were identified. At least in Kenya, and probably in Mexico, the problem has its antecedents in prepregnancy and pregnancy. Powerful determinants of the infants' size at birth and during the first 6 months of life are maternal size upon entry into pregnancy, and weight and fat gain during pregnancy and lactation. In all three countries a low pregnancy weight gain was observed. Notably in Kenya, where the energy intake of the mother decreases progressively throughout pregnancy, not only do mothers gain only half as much as European or North American women, but they even lose weight and fat in the last month of pregnancy, and some mothers gain no weight or lose weight during the whole of pregnancy. Mothers in Kenya start lactation with relatively poor fat stores. Although their energy intake increases somewhat during lactation, preliminary estimates suggest that these increases may be insufficient to maintain their bodily integrity, to carry out their normal tasks of daily living, and to produce a sufficient amount of milk for optimal infant growth. In addition to an energy deficit, diet quality is a problem, particularly in Kenya and Mexico and less so in Egypt. Intakes of animal products and animal protein are very low. Zinc and iron intakes are not only low, but the bioavailability of these nutrients is poor because of the high phytate, fiber and tea content of the diet. Also vitamin B12 intake is extremely low, and at least mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency (IDD) is present in Kenya. The above micronutrients have been demonstrated to affect the linear growth of the Kenyan children, even after confounding factors have been controlled. The early use of supplemental feeding in Kenya is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, there is a slight increase in febrile illness and possible displacement of breast milk intake in the supplemented infants, although mothers do not decrease breast feeding frequency and duration. On the other hand, even the modest amounts of available zinc and B12 in supplemental foods appear to have a positive effect on linear growth.(

ABSTRACT

TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Population and Family Health, UCLA School of Public Health and School of Medicine (Pediatrics) 90024.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8005095

Citation

Neumann, C G., and G G. Harrison. "Onset and Evolution of Stunting in Infants and Children. Examples From the Human Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program. Kenya and Egypt Studies." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 48 Suppl 1, 1994, pp. S90-102.
Neumann CG, Harrison GG. Onset and evolution of stunting in infants and children. Examples from the Human Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program. Kenya and Egypt studies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994;48 Suppl 1:S90-102.
Neumann, C. G., & Harrison, G. G. (1994). Onset and evolution of stunting in infants and children. Examples from the Human Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program. Kenya and Egypt studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48 Suppl 1, pp. S90-102.
Neumann CG, Harrison GG. Onset and Evolution of Stunting in Infants and Children. Examples From the Human Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program. Kenya and Egypt Studies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994;48 Suppl 1:S90-102. PubMed PMID: 8005095.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Onset and evolution of stunting in infants and children. Examples from the Human Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program. Kenya and Egypt studies. AU - Neumann,C G, AU - Harrison,G G, PY - 1994/2/1/pubmed PY - 1994/2/1/medline PY - 1994/2/1/entrez KW - Africa KW - Africa South Of The Sahara KW - Age Factors KW - Americas KW - Arab Countries KW - Biology KW - Child KW - Child Development KW - Child Nutrition KW - Demographic Factors KW - Developing Countries KW - Eastern Africa KW - Egypt KW - English Speaking Africa KW - Examinations And Diagnoses KW - Growth--determinants KW - Health KW - Infant Nutrition KW - Kenya KW - Latin America KW - Longitudinal Studies KW - Maternal Nutrition KW - Mediterranean Countries KW - Mexico KW - North America KW - Northern Africa KW - Nutrition KW - Physical Examinations And Diagnoses KW - Population KW - Population Characteristics KW - Research Methodology KW - Research Report KW - Studies KW - Youth SP - S90 EP - 102 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 48 Suppl 1 N2 - The etiology of the early onset of stunting is diverse among populations of varying biological, environmental and cultural circumstances. This is exemplified within the Nutrition CRSP project, which took place in three different populations and ecological conditions. Within each study area a different mix and varying proportions of causative factors were identified. At least in Kenya, and probably in Mexico, the problem has its antecedents in prepregnancy and pregnancy. Powerful determinants of the infants' size at birth and during the first 6 months of life are maternal size upon entry into pregnancy, and weight and fat gain during pregnancy and lactation. In all three countries a low pregnancy weight gain was observed. Notably in Kenya, where the energy intake of the mother decreases progressively throughout pregnancy, not only do mothers gain only half as much as European or North American women, but they even lose weight and fat in the last month of pregnancy, and some mothers gain no weight or lose weight during the whole of pregnancy. Mothers in Kenya start lactation with relatively poor fat stores. Although their energy intake increases somewhat during lactation, preliminary estimates suggest that these increases may be insufficient to maintain their bodily integrity, to carry out their normal tasks of daily living, and to produce a sufficient amount of milk for optimal infant growth. In addition to an energy deficit, diet quality is a problem, particularly in Kenya and Mexico and less so in Egypt. Intakes of animal products and animal protein are very low. Zinc and iron intakes are not only low, but the bioavailability of these nutrients is poor because of the high phytate, fiber and tea content of the diet. Also vitamin B12 intake is extremely low, and at least mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency (IDD) is present in Kenya. The above micronutrients have been demonstrated to affect the linear growth of the Kenyan children, even after confounding factors have been controlled. The early use of supplemental feeding in Kenya is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, there is a slight increase in febrile illness and possible displacement of breast milk intake in the supplemented infants, although mothers do not decrease breast feeding frequency and duration. On the other hand, even the modest amounts of available zinc and B12 in supplemental foods appear to have a positive effect on linear growth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8005095/Onset_and_evolution_of_stunting_in_infants_and_children__Examples_from_the_Human_Nutrition_Collaborative_Research_Support_Program__Kenya_and_Egypt_studies_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/growthdisorders.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -