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Rural-urban blood lead differences in North Carolina children.
Pediatrics. 1994 Jul; 94(1):59-64.Ped

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the prevalence of and risk factors for having a blood lead elevation among young children in a predominantly rural state.

METHODS

20,720 North Carolina children at least 6 months and < 6 years of age were screened between November 1, 1992 and April 30, 1993 using either capillary or venous measurements of blood lead. Children were tested through routine screening programs that target low-income families and, hence, were not randomly selected. Eighty-one percent of the children were screened through local public health departments, and 19% were tested at private clinics.

RESULTS

The estimated prevalences of having an elevated blood lead level among those tested were: 20.2% (> or = 10 micrograms/dL), 3.2% (> or = 15 micrograms/dL), and 1.1% (> or = 20 micrograms/dL). Black children were at substantially increased risk of having a blood lead > or = 15 micrograms/dL (odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7 to 2.5). Children aged 2 years old had an elevated risk (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1 to 1.7) compared to 1-year-olds, and males were at slightly increased risk (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0 to 1.4). Living in a rural county was nearly as strong a risk factor as race (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.6 to 2.4). The effect of rural residence was even greater among certain subgroups of children already at highest risk of having an elevated blood lead. The type of clinic (public vs private) where a child was screened was not associated with blood lead outcome. These same trends were seen for children with blood lead levels > or = 20 micrograms/dL.

CONCLUSIONS

Among children screened from rural communities, the prevalence of elevated blood lead is surprisingly high. Though few physicians have embraced universal lead screening, these data support the need for greater awareness of lead exposure in children living outside of inner-cities.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Preventive Services Branch, Division of Maternal and Child Health, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Raleigh 27611.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8008539

Citation

Norman, E H., et al. "Rural-urban Blood Lead Differences in North Carolina Children." Pediatrics, vol. 94, no. 1, 1994, pp. 59-64.
Norman EH, Bordley WC, Hertz-Picciotto I, et al. Rural-urban blood lead differences in North Carolina children. Pediatrics. 1994;94(1):59-64.
Norman, E. H., Bordley, W. C., Hertz-Picciotto, I., & Newton, D. A. (1994). Rural-urban blood lead differences in North Carolina children. Pediatrics, 94(1), 59-64.
Norman EH, et al. Rural-urban Blood Lead Differences in North Carolina Children. Pediatrics. 1994;94(1):59-64. PubMed PMID: 8008539.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Rural-urban blood lead differences in North Carolina children. AU - Norman,E H, AU - Bordley,W C, AU - Hertz-Picciotto,I, AU - Newton,D A, PY - 1994/7/1/pubmed PY - 1994/7/1/medline PY - 1994/7/1/entrez SP - 59 EP - 64 JF - Pediatrics JO - Pediatrics VL - 94 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of and risk factors for having a blood lead elevation among young children in a predominantly rural state. METHODS: 20,720 North Carolina children at least 6 months and < 6 years of age were screened between November 1, 1992 and April 30, 1993 using either capillary or venous measurements of blood lead. Children were tested through routine screening programs that target low-income families and, hence, were not randomly selected. Eighty-one percent of the children were screened through local public health departments, and 19% were tested at private clinics. RESULTS: The estimated prevalences of having an elevated blood lead level among those tested were: 20.2% (> or = 10 micrograms/dL), 3.2% (> or = 15 micrograms/dL), and 1.1% (> or = 20 micrograms/dL). Black children were at substantially increased risk of having a blood lead > or = 15 micrograms/dL (odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7 to 2.5). Children aged 2 years old had an elevated risk (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1 to 1.7) compared to 1-year-olds, and males were at slightly increased risk (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0 to 1.4). Living in a rural county was nearly as strong a risk factor as race (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.6 to 2.4). The effect of rural residence was even greater among certain subgroups of children already at highest risk of having an elevated blood lead. The type of clinic (public vs private) where a child was screened was not associated with blood lead outcome. These same trends were seen for children with blood lead levels > or = 20 micrograms/dL. CONCLUSIONS: Among children screened from rural communities, the prevalence of elevated blood lead is surprisingly high. Though few physicians have embraced universal lead screening, these data support the need for greater awareness of lead exposure in children living outside of inner-cities. SN - 0031-4005 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8008539/Rural_urban_blood_lead_differences_in_North_Carolina_children_ L2 - http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=8008539 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -