Properties of starch and dietary fibre in raw and processed quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds.Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1994 Apr; 45(3):223-46.PF
We investigated certain properties of starch in raw and in heat-treated samples of quinoa, properties that are of importance to the nutritional quality of an infant food currently being developed. Scanning electron microscopy of the starch in raw seeds showed polygonal granules (0.6 to 2.0 microns diameter) to be present both singly and as spherical aggregates. Thermograms (DSC) of the flours showed one transition phase for gelatinisation of the starch and another for the amylose-lipid complex. The gelatinisation temperature of the starch was 67 degrees C. Cooked samples manifested the highest degree of gelatinisation (97%), followed by the drum-dried (96%) and autoclaved (27%) samples. Separation of the starch on a SEPHAROSE CL-2B column showed the quinoa starch to be affected by the heat treatment, manifesting changes in the degree and extent of degradation. The amylograph viscosity of the quinoa flour showed no distinct peak for pasting, but the viscosity remained constant after gelatinisation. Cooking and autoclaving modified the viscosity of the paste. The drum-dried sample manifested a higher initial viscosity at 25 degrees C. The in vitro digestibility of raw quinoa starch determined by incubation for 60 min with alpha-amylase was 22%, while that of autoclaved, cooked and drum-dried samples was 32%, 45% and 73%, respectively. Saponins did not affect the digestibility of the starch, though they tended to increase the amylograph viscosity. The total dietary fibre content in the cooked sample (11.0%) was significantly lower than that in the autoclaved (13.2%), drum-dried (13.3%) or raw samples (13.3%), while the insoluble dietary fibre fraction in the samples did not change with heat treatment. However, as compared with that of raw quinoa, the soluble dietary fibre fraction was reduced significantly both by cooking (0.9%) and by autoclaving (1.0%).