Basics of robotics and manipulators in endoscopic surgery.Endosc Surg Allied Technol. 1993 Jun; 1(3):154-9.ES
The experience with sophisticated remote handling systems for nuclear operations in inaccessible rooms can to a large extent be transferred to the development of robotics and telemanipulators for endoscopic surgery. A telemanipulator system is described consisting of manipulator, endeffector and tools, 3-D video-endoscope, sensors, intelligent control system, modeling and graphic simulation and man-machine interfaces as the main components or subsystems. Such a telemanipulator seems to be medically worthwhile and technically feasible, but needs a lot of effort from different scientific disciplines to become a safe and reliable instrument for future endoscopic surgery.